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Bibliography of Text-based Metaphor Resources
updated Aug 2008
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Also see: online metaphor resources in various disciplines.

My apologies for not having full biblio. info for all of the articles. This is a continuing process.
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Alice, Lynn. "Hot property: mutants, metaphors and radiation."Hecate.  Oct 1993 v19 n2 p39(21) an essay on cancer 

Archer, Maureen and Ronnie Cohen. "Leaving women out in left field: sports metaphors, women, and legal discourse." Women and Language.  Fall 1997 v20 n2 p2(5) 

Armour, Phillip. "Zeppelins and Jet Planes: A Metaphor for Modern Software Projects." Communications of the ACM, Oct 2001 v44 i10 p13 

Austin, Michael. "Art and religion as metaphor." The British Journal of Aesthetics. April 1995 v35 n2 p145(9) 

Avis,  John C. "Evolving Genomic Metaphors: A New Look at the Language of DNA,"
Science, Oct 5, 2001 v294 i5540 p86 

"Ban cyberspace." Economist. The Economist, London, Jun 21, 1997; Vol. 343, Iss. 8022; pg. S12, 1 pg [anonymous] This articles states the belief that the Internet language, based on poor metaphors, such as "cyberspace," "surf," "spiders," "bookmarks," "hits," "host," should be banned from the language. 

Beck, Lynn G. Understanding the principalship : metaphorical themes, 1920's-1990's. New York : Teachers College Press, 1993. 

"Big bangs and exploding cakes." New Scientist. May 8, 1993, v138n1872, p. 3. [anonymous] Scientific metaphors have their limits. Mistaking scientific metaphors for the mathematical truth is problematic. 

Boehmer, Elleke. Colonial and postcolonial literature : migrant metaphors. Oxford;  New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 

Boyd, Josh. "A quest for Cinergy: the war metaphor and the construction of identity." Communication Studies. Fall 2003 v54 i3 p249(16)

Brown, Theodore L. Making truth: metaphor in science.. Urbana/Chicago: University of Illinois Press, .2003  

Budd, Malcolm. "Musical movement and aesthetic metaphors." The British Journal of Aesthetics. July 2003 v43 i3 p209-223 

Cameron, Lynne & Deignan, Alice."Combining large and small corpora to investigate tuning devices around metaphor in spoken discourse." Metaphor and Symbol 18 (3) 149-160. 

Cameron, Lynne. Metaphor in Educational Discourse. London: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2003.  

Cameron, Lynne. "Patterns of metaphor use in reconciliation talk." Discourse and Society, 2003 18 (2) 197-222. 

Cameron, L. & Deignan, A. "The emergence of metaphor in discourse". Applied Linguistics, 2004, 27(4) 671-690.  

Cameron, Lynne and Graham Low, eds.Researching and applying metaphor.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. 

Cantoni, Virginio, ed.  Human and machine vision : analogies and divergencies. New York: Plenum Press, 1994. 

Castillo, Lisa C. "The effect of analogy instruction on young children's metaphor comprehension." Roeper Review. Sept 1998 v21 n1 p27(5)

Chew, Matthew K.  and Manfred D. Laubichler. "Natural enemies--metaphor or misconception?" Science. July 4, 2003 v301 i5629 p52(2)

Collins, Christopher. Authority figures : metaphors of mastery from the Iliad to the Apocalypse.  Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1996. 

Cowan, George A.; David Pines; David Meltzer, eds. Complexity : metaphors, models, and reality.
Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1994. 

Crochet, Patricia Hornsby. Theater: A Five-Step Metaphor for Life in the Real World.  The Delta Kappa Gamma bulletin. Volume 66, Number 1,  Fall 1999, p. 59. 

David, Carol; Graham, Margaret Baker. "Conflicting values: Team management portrayed in epic metaphors". Journal of Business & Technical Communication. Jan 1997, v11n1, p. 24-48 (25 pages.) David and Graham analyzed a chief executive officer's extended epic metaphor used to build a corporate culture. The CEO's metaphoric language, which uses metaphors about competition and heroes is opposed to the principles the CEO intends to use in his organization: teamwork in management. 

Denes, Agnes. "Artistic vision and molecular genetics." Art Journal. Spring 1996, v55n1, p. 34-35 (2 pages). 
The artist discusses how she uses scientific images of genes and other scientific pictures to express human values in her art. 

Doornbos,  Martin. "Good governance": the metamorphosis of a policy metaphor: (Concepts of Governance)  Journal of International Affairs. Fall 2003 v57 i1 p3(15)

Dreisbach, Daniel L.; Whaley, John D. What the Wall Separates: A Debate on Thomas Jefferson's "Wall of Separation" Metaphor. Constitutional commentary.  Volume 16, Number 3,  Winter 1999,   p. 627 

Duhl, Bunny S. From the inside out and other metaphors: creative and integrative approaches to training in systems thinking. New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1983. 

Eisenberg, Anne. "Metaphor in the Language of Science." Scientific American. May 1992, v266n5, p. 144. 
Eisenberg examines whether or not metaphors impede or enrich scientific writing and discussion. 

Eldred, Janet Carey and Ron Fortune.  "Exploring the Implications of Metaphors for Computer Networks and Hypermedia."  Re-Imagining Computers and Composition: Teaching and Research in the Virtual Age.  eds. Gail E. Hawisher and Paul LeBlanc.  Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Heinemann, 1992, pp.58-80.

Ellenius, Allan, ed. Iconography, propaganda, and legitimation. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. 

Feltovich, Paul J., ed. Expertise in context : human and machine. Menlo Park, Calif.: AAAI Press; Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1997. 

Fernandex-Duque, Diego  and Mark L. Johnson. "Attention Metaphors: How Metaphors Guide the Cognitive Psychology of Attention. " Cognitive Science. Jan-March 1999 v23 i1 p83(1) 

Fernandez, James W. Beyond metaphor : the theory of tropes in anthropology. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1991. 

Fields, Rick.  Cancer as Metaphor. Whole earth review.  Number 98,  Fall  1999,  pp. 19 

Fienup-Riordan, Ann. "Clearing the path: metaphors to live by in Yup'ik Eskimo oral tradition." The American Indian Quarterly. Wntr 1994 v18 n1 p61(10) 

Fitz, Brewster E.  Philomela on the Plains: Remarks on Mixedblood Intertextual Metaphor in Diane Glancy's Flutie.  Studies in American Indian literatures : newsletter of the Association for Study of American Indian Literatures.   Volume 11, Number 3, Fall  1999,   pp. 79

Flannery, Maura C. "Quilting: A feminist metaphor for scientific inquiry."  Qualitative Inquiry, Oct 2001 v7 i5 p628(1) 

Flohr, Udo. Avoid the Global Faux Pas. Byte. Mar 1997, v22n3, p. 102. 
Some icons, metaphors, and symbols that Internet developers use can be offensive and misunderstood by some cultures, thereby limiting the communication intended by these icons. 

Friedman, Batya. Human values and the design of computer technology. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications; Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997. 

Gannon, Martin J., ed. Cultural metaphors : readings, research translations, and commentary. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, 2001. 

Giles, Timothy D.  "The Missing Metaphor."  Journal of Technical Writing and Communication.  31.4 (2001): 373-90. This study examines articles that heralded the cloning of the sheep Dolly  The study fails to identify a central metaphor for cloning, unlike many other scientific revolutions.  However, the articles are rife with a variety of other tropes.  The author speculates on the extent to which the lack of a central metaphor may point to problems with conveying the significance and value of cloning to the general public.

Goldberg, Adele E., ed. Conceptual structure, discourse, and language. Stanford, Calif.: CSLI Publications, 1996. 

Gould, Stephen Jay.  "Self-help for a hedgehog stuck on a molehill." Evolution June 1997 v51 n3 p1020(5). Gould informs about the Darwinian concept of evolution. 

Gozzi, Raymond Jr. "Artificial intelligence--Metaphor or oxymoron?" Et Cetera. Summer 1997, v54n2, p. 219-224 (6 pages). Computers are compared to the "thinking" brain of a human. As more limitations of computers becomes known, the metaphor may lose its usefulness as relates to language and semantics.

Haddon, Genia Pauli. Body metaphors: releasing God-feminine in us all. New York: Crossroad, 1988. 

Hagevik, Sandra . "Career models and metaphors." Journal of Environmental Health. Dec 1998 v61 i5 p48(2) 

Halbesleben, Jonathon R.B. and Jennifer A.H. Becker, M. Ronald Buckley. "Considering the labor contributions of students: an alternative to the student-as-customer metaphor. " Journal of Education for Business. May-June 2003 v78 i5 p255(3)

Hardman. M.J. "Metaphorical alternatives to violence-report from a workshop." Women and Language. Fall 1998 v21 i2 p43(4) 

Haronian, Mary-Jo. "When the teller ends with the tale: the story as metaphor for feminist agency." Women and Language Spring 1996 v19 n1 p32(4). 

Herman, Andrew and Thomas Swiss, eds. The World Wide Web and Contemporary Cultural Theory: Magic, Metaphor, Power. New York: Routledge, July 2000. (ISBN: 0415925010)

Hoenigswald , Henry M. and Linda F. Wiener. Biological metaphor and cladistic classification : an interdisciplinary perspective. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1987 

Horn, George M.."Idioms, metaphors and syntactic mobility." (abstract) Journal of Linguistics. July 2003 v39 i2 p245(29)

Johnson,  Gerald J.  "Of metaphor and difficulty of computer discourse."  Communications of the ACM. Dec 1994 v37 n12 p97(6) 

Johnson, Mark. The body in the mind : the bodily basis of meaning, imagination, and reason.
Chicag : University of Chicago Press, 1987. 

Johnson-Sheehan, Richard D. Scientific communication and metaphors: an analysis of Einstein's 1905 Special Relativity paper. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, Wntr 1995 v25 n1 p71(13). 

Johnson-Sheehan, Richard D. The emergence of a root metaphor in modern physics: Max Planck's 'quantum' metaphor. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication. Spring 1997 v27 n2 p177(14) 

Jones, Leslie, Druid, shaman, priest : metaphors of Celtic paganism. Enfield Lock, Middlesex, UK: Hisarlik Press, 1998. 

Justman, Stewart . " 'I am what you made me': the fabrication metaphor and its significance." Mosaic (Winnipeg) Dec 1997 v30 n4 p79(15) 

Kamens, Edward. Utamakura, allusion, and intertextuality in traditional Japanese poetry. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997. 

Kazmerski, Victoria A. and Dawn G. Blasko, Banchiamlack G. Dessalegn. "ERP and behavioral evidence of individual differences in metaphor comprehension." (abstract) Memory & Cognition. July 2003 v31 i5 p673(17

Kessler, Edward. Coleridge's metaphors of being. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1979 

Kirklin, Deborah. "Metaphors for medicine: Revealing reflections or just popular parodies? (Editorial). Medical Humanities Dec 2001 v27 i2 p89(1) 

Klein, Jeremy; David Gee; Howard Jones. "Analysing clusters of skills in R&D - core competencies, metaphors, visualization, and the role of IT." R & D Management. Jan 1998 v28 n1 p37(6) 

Kövecses, Zoltán. Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. 

Kupferberg, I. & Green, D. Troubled Talk: Metaphorical Negotiation in Problem Discourse. New York/Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2005. 

Lacity, Mary Cecelia. Information systems outsourcing: myths, metaphors, and realities.
Chichester; New York: J. Wiley, 1993. 

Lakoff, George. The Body Politic. Whole earth review.  Number 98, Fall 1999, pp.23. 

Lakoff, George. Contemporary theory of metaphor. In Ortony, A. (ed) Metaphor and Thought (2nd Ed.). New York, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p 202-251.

Lakoff, George. Conceptual Metaphor Home Page. Published electronically at (1994)  

Lakoff, George. Moral Politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.  

Lakoff, George & Johnson, Mark. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1980.  

Lakoff, George & Johnson, Mark. Philosophy in the Flesh: the Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books, 1999. 

Lakoff, George & Turner, Mark. More Than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, (1989).  

Landy, Marc K.and Henry A. Plotkin. "Limits of the market metaphor."  Society. May-June 1982 v19 p8(10) 

Leary, David E., ed. Metaphors in the history of psychology. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 

Lewis, P.A "Metaphor and critical realism." Review of Social Economy.Winter 1996 v54 n4 p487(24) 

Lloyd, Tom. Crises of realism : representing experience in the British novel, 1816-1910. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press; London; Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses,1997. 

Lynch, Thomas. Bodies in motion and at rest: on metaphor and mortality.  New York: W.W. Norton, 2000. 

Nochlin, Linda. The body in pieces: the fragment as a metaphor of modernity. New York, N.Y. : Thames and Hudson, 1994.

Petruccio, Sandro. Atoms, metaphors, and paradoxes: Niels Bohr and the construction of a new physics. Cambridge [England]; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press, 1993. translated by Ian McGilvray

Madsen, Kim Halskov . "A guide to metaphorical design." Communications of the ACM. Dec 1994 v37 n12 p57(6) 

McGee, Jennifer J. "pilgrim's progress: metaphor in the rhetoric of Mary Fisher, AIDS activist." Women's Studies in Communication. Fall 2003 v26 i2 p191(23)

Mehaffey, Marilyn Maness. "Manipulating the metaphors: ''The House of Mirth' and 'the volcanic nether-side' of 'sexuality'." College Literature June 1994 v21 n2 p47(16). 

Metaphor in cognitive linguistics: selected papers from the Fifth International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, Amsterdam, July 1997 ; Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, c1999. 

Mikkelson, Gregory M. "Methods and Metaphors in Community Ecology: The Problem of Defining Stability." Perspectives on Science. Winter 1997 v5 i4 p481(1) 

Miller, Arthur I. Insights of genius: imagery and creativity in science and art. New York, NY: Copernicus, 1996. 

Morrow, Lance. "Metaphors of the world, unite!" Time Oct 16, 1989 v134 n16 p96(1) 
a gatheriring of scholars at Boston University to find a metaphor for the modern age 

Mrkonjic, Zvonimir. "Even metaphors get killed, don't they?"Symposium Fall 1995 v49 n3 p214(3). 

Nehaniv, Chrystopher L., ed. Computation for metaphors, analogy, and agents. Berlin; New York : Springer, 1999. 

Noblit, George W. and  Robert J. Gregory. "The 'Coal Miner' University: Explorations into Metaphors on Education Organizations." High School Journal Oct 1998 v82 i1 p43(1) 

Noppen, J. P. van (Jean-Pierre). Metaphor : a bibliography of post-1970 publications. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: J. Benjamins Pub. Co., 1985. 

O'Connell, Sanjida. The trouble with Piggy's specs. New Scientist, May 25, 1996 v150 n2031 p52(1). The scientific explanations in novels, such as the use of the concave lens of Piggy's spectacles to light a fire in William Golding's 'Lord of the flies,' poses problems. Works of art must have as correct as possible scientific metaphors. Correct scientific metaphors balanced with literary conventions can aid in perception of environmental issues. 

"Organic and mechanical metaphors in late eighteenth-century American political thought. "Harvard Law Review. June 1997 110 n8 p1832-1849. [anonymous] Metaphors of the body and the machine in late 18th century America were used to describe systems of interrelated parts of political institutions. The author argues that the two metaphors, organic and mechanical, were interrelated and show the balance that occurs in political institutions. 

Palmer, Susan. AIDS as an apocalyptic metaphor in North America. Toronto; Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 1997. 

Paton, R.C. and H.S. Nwana,  M.J.R. Shave, T.J.M. Bench-Capon. "An examination of some metaphorical contexts for biologically motivated computing." The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science June 1994 v45 n2 p505(21) 

Paton, R.Computing with biological metaphors. London; New York: Chapman & Hall, 1994. 

Pearce, Stephen S. Flash of insight : metaphor and narrative in therapy. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1996. 

Proops, Ian. "Kant's legal metaphor and the nature of a deduction." The Journal of the History of Philosophy. April 2003 v41 i2 p209-229 

Rabkin, Jeremy.  The Culture War as Metaphor: The Need for Political Involvement. Current.  ISSUE: Number 416, October 1, 1999, p.11. The idea that there is a "culture war," is a misrepresentation of American history. This "culture war," says Rabkin, incorrectly assumes that the best option for religious fundamentalists is to remove themselves from the political scene. 

Richardt, Susanne. Metaphor in Languages for Special Purposes. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2005 

"Roadblock that metaphor! " Time.  May 2, 1994 v143 n18 p20(1) 
Writers' attempts to describe the information superhighway using metaphors. 

Rothbart, Daniel. Explaining the growth of scientific knowledge : metaphors, models, and meanings.Lewiston, N.Y. : E. Mellen Press, 1997.

Rothenberg, Julia and Andreas Heinz. "Meddling with monkey metaphors - capitalism and the threat of impulsive desires."  Social Justice Summer 1998 v25 n2 p44 (21) 

Sahlins, Marshall David. Historical metaphors and mythical realities: structure in the early history of the Sandwich Islandskingdom. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1981. 

Semino, Elena. "The metaphorical construction of complex domains: the case of speech activity in English." Metaphor and Symbol, 2005. 20(1), 35-70 

Shands, Kerstin W. Embracing space: spatial metaphors in feminist discourse.  Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1999. 

Shibles, Warren A.Metaphor: an annotated bibliography and history.Whitewater, Wis., Language Press, 1971. 

Smith, Thomas H. "Metaphors for navigating negotiations". Negotiation journal, 2005, 21(3), 343-364. 

Smith, Thomas H. "Using disputants’ metaphors in mediation". Conflict Resolution Quarterly,2005, 23(1), 5-23  

Sommer, Elyse, exec.editor; Dorrie Weiss. Metaphors dictionary. New York: Gale Research, c1995. 

Sontag, Susan. AIDS and its metaphors. New York : Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1989. 1st ed. (Book) 

Sontag, Susan. Illness as metaphor. New York : Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1978.(Book)
How tuberculosis and cancer are treated in literature. 

Stahl, Frieda A. Physics, language, and literature. The Physics Teacher, March 1997 v35 n3 p143(3). Stahl discusses ways to help humanities students to be more interested in the science by teaching a cross-disciplinary physics course that focuses on concepts and encourages students to develop metaphors for different physical principles.  

Steinhart, Eric (2001). The Logic of Metaphor - Analogous Parts of Possible Words. (Synthese Library, Volume 299). Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Sticht, T. G. (1993). Educational uses of metaphor, in Ortony, A. (ed) (1993) Metaphor and Thought: Second Edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Sullivan, Blair. The Unwritable Sound of Music: The Origins and Implications of Isidore's Memorial Metaphor. Viator. Volume 30, 1999, pp. 1 

Sushil. "Flexibility metaphors." (Notes and Insights). Systems Research and Behavioral Science. Nov-Dec 2001 v18 i6 p569(7) 

Tanner, Stephen L.  Hemingway's Trout Fishing in Paris: A Metaphor for the Uses of Writing.  The Hemingway review.
Volume 19, Number 1,Fall  1999, pp. 79. 

Tenopir, Carol. Envisioning online services. (Internet and World Wide Web metaphors)(Online Databases) Library Journal, March 1, 1997, v122 n4 p35(2). 

Tilley, Christopher Y. Metaphor and material culture. Oxford, UK; Malden, Mass: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. 

Tsuchiya, Shigehisa. A new role for computerized simulation in social science: summary thoughts on a case study. Simulation & Gaming.March 1996 v27 n1 p 103(7). Computerized simulation can facilitate communication. Communication in organizations and among organizations is often hampered by a lack of a shared understanding of what terms mean.  

Turner, Victor Witter. Dramas, fields, and metaphors; symbolic action in human society.
Ithaca,N.Y.; Cornell University Press,1974. 

Ungar, Sheldon. "Misplaced metaphor: a critical analysis of the "knowledge society." The Canadian Review of Sociology and AnthropologyUngar, Sheldon . August 2003 v40 i3 p331(17)

Valentine, Kristin Bervig and Eugene Valentine. "Metaphors in the university, or I never promised you an ivory tower."  Women and Language.  Fall 1994 v17 n2 p11(7) 

Vizenor, Gerald Robert, Interior landscapes: autobiographical myths and metaphors.Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1990.

von Ghyczy, Tihamer. "The fruitful flaws of strategy metaphors." Harvard Business Review .Sept 2003 v81 i9 p86(9) 

Wayne, June. Statement on DNA as a working theme. (Models, Metaphors, and Matter: Artists and Scientists Visualize Scientific Concepts). Art Journal., Spring 1996 v55 n1 p42(2). One artist describes how she has incorporated concepts of genetic research and the DNA code into her work to explore the social and natural forces. She has relied extensively on illustrations from scientific publications which she reinterprets to create interesting patterns. 

Whittock, Trevor. "Dance metaphors: a reply to Julie Van Camp." (British Journal of Aesthetics, vol. 36, April 1996). The British Journal of Aesthetics. July 1997 v37 n3 p274(9) 

Wis, Ramona M. "Physical Metaphor in the Choral Rehearsal: A Gesture-Based Approach to Developing Vocal Skill and Musical Understanding." The Choral Journal. Volume 40, Number 3, October 1,1999, pp. 25.  

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