This guide follows the APA style for documenting
sources within the body of your paper. This kind of documentation
is called "in-text" citations. For more guidelines, see the list
of APA and MLA and
other research guidelines online.
Use parenthetical citations (reference
information between parentheses) for information that is someone's opinion
(generally an expert opinion) and is not common knowledge.
Use parenthetical citation information
for quotations and paraphrases.
Include page number for direct quotes.
(In MLA you include the page numbers for all sources, quoted or paraphrased.)
Include the date in APA in-text citations:
As Smith (1993) stated, "magazines for
the general public generally have less reliable evidence than scholarly
or professional journals" (p. 2).
As Smith said, "magazines for the general
public generally have less reliable information than scholarly or professional
journals" (1993, p. 2).
Paraphrased version: Magazines written
for a lay audience tend to have less objective information than that found
in scholarly publications (Smith, 1993).
NOTE: In APA style, there are no
quotation marks for a paraphrase. Paraphrasing means restating in your
own words the original author's EXACT meaning - not just rearranging words
in the author's original text. You can embed a short quote of a key phrase
in paraphrased material and give the page number of the quote.
It is poor form to begin a paragraph or
a sentence with a quotation. This method causes the source to speak
for you, instead of you using the source to back up a point you are
making. For example, here is an example of poor form, which shows no input
from the writer of the paper. He or she is just writing what the original
author said, without trying to paraphrase the information or, at the very
least setting up the quote in context:
"The proliferation of multiple births in
this country speaks to the need to formulate ethics guidelines to regulate
the fertility clinics" (Jones, 1997, p. 82).
An example of a more graceful form of setting
up a quote is:
Because of significant number of multiple
births in the United States, Jones points out that this country needs to
"formulate ethics guidelines to regulate the fertility clinics" (1997,
All sources in your research paper, like
the examples above, are not only documented in the body of your paper,
but must also be listed in the proper format on the Reference page.
Use quotes judiciously. Use them only when
paraphrasing will make the statement unclear or a kernel of an idea is
so perfectly stated that trying to paraphrase in your own words will ruin
the impact of the statement.
Long quotes (over three or four lines)
are indented 5 to 7 spaces. Unlike, quotes within a paragaraph, indented
quotes are not set off by quotation marks. The period "."comes
before the parentheses in long quotes.