Development of Reading


Initial Reading

Rapid Skill Acquisition

Wide Reading



Visual discrimination

Auditory discrimination (inc. phonemic)

Alphabet recognition

Linguistic prerequisites

adequate vocabulary

listening skills; following directions

auditory attention span; story grammar

Initial Reading

Sight vocabulary

Word attack skills

Phonetic analysis:

initial consonants

short vowel sounds

variant consonants (c, g)

single final consonants

cvc; long vowel patterns, digraphs, -e;

blends, consonant digraphs, r-controlled vowels

Rapid Skill Acquisition

Fluency, automaticity, mastery = rate

Structural analysis:

verb suffixes (-ing, -ed), noun plurals (-s, -es)

comparitives (-est) states of being (-ness, -tion)

root words, compounds

pronoun/verb contractions (I’ll), negative (won’t)


Rapid Skill Acquisition: Context

Contextual analysis:

complete unfinished sentence

supply missing word (picture or letter cue)

unscramble words

use phonics andcontext to decode word

select correct dictionary definition

learn unknown word from context

Cues for Word Reading


knowledge of sound-symbol relationships


knowledge of rules of English grammar


use word, sentence meanings to predict unknown word

Wide Reading

Transition from "learning to read" to "reading to learn."

extend breadth and depth of knowledge, vocabulary knowledge

New tasks that may challenge reading ability

Comprehension Skills

Identify details in passage

State main idea of passage

Relate sequence of events in passage

draw conclusions, predict, draw inferences

follow written directions;multiple meanings

cause/effect; compare/contrast

distinguish between subjective/objective

interpret/analyze underlying themes


Advanced reading skills:

adjust reading rate to purpose

multiple "passes" through text

sustain attention adequate to purpose

read maps, charts, diagrams for information

use table of contents, index

dictionary, encyclopedia, library,other reference

write summaries, outlines of main ideas, details


Survey tests

to identify estimated levels of performance


Diagnostic tests

identify relative strengths and weaknesses

Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-R

Informal assessment

Informal Assessment

Informal Reading Inventory

brief reading passages and other tasks to identify relative strengths and weaknesses

can identify independent, instructional, frustration levels

Ekwall Reading Inventory; Silvaroli Classroom Reading Inventory

Create your own with relevant materials

Oral Reading Scoring System

Mispronunciations: write above word

(They bought the bread at the store)

Assistance: write letter A

(Hawkeye performed the delicate operation)

Omissions: circle word or portion

Letter/word inversions: use typographical mark

Self-correction: use letter C above word

Insertion: use carat

Hesitation and repetition:use checkmark,wavy line

Cloze Procedure

Select 2 passages of 250 words at a specific grade level

Delete every 5th word (except 1st sentence), and replace with blank underlines

Individual: say the word; group: write the word.

Curriculum Based Measurement

Select (6) 100-200 word passages from the end of the book.

Give individual students timed probes of these readings regularly (2 or more X wk.)

Chart reading rate, correct, incorrect, and make predictions of long term progress

Make instructional decisions based on formative data

The Problem Reader: SRA

Frequent word identification errors

more in connected sentences than word lists

omissions, additions, substitutions (of/for; and/the)

reads synonyms (pretty:beautiful; house:home)

Doesn’t understand the relationship between letters of a word and pronunciation

may lack phonemic awareness

"Look at the word (or 1st letter) and guess"

"Think of what the word might mean"

"Look at the general shape of the word"

Problem Reader II

Doesn’t read with sufficient fluency to comprehend passages

Not a highly motivated student

may state [incorrectly]: "I don't care if I can read or not"; "I hate reading"

Ineffective reading strategies and negative attitudes about reading increase with age.

Student Reflections (Johnson, 1992)

"Oh, you sit there scare that the teacher’s going to call on you. You become a class clown…But also you sit right up the front of the class too; you don’t sit in the back…back is they pick on the kids in the back...

Since about third or fourth grade I haven’t even done anything..any teacher who teaches her class says verbally what has to be learned. All you have to do is pay attention."

Johnson, 1992

"Together, these reactions -- a general avoidance of print detail and a shutting down of processing under stress -- could produce a condition of almost literal "word blindness" when reading is required. This would make learning to read a very difficult feat indeed."

Reflections (Centra, 1990)

"I can remember this teacher as if it were yesterday. She was so terrible. I was in the first grade. It was so noisy, I could not concentrate. The teacher was always screaming and yelling…I had these big stacks of papers on my desk to finish. I couldn’t catch up…I can still hear that yelling and see that mouth going… That yelling and that mouth!

Observations (Rudenga, 1992)

Laura’s social interactions are sometimes immature, and she is not readily accepted by peers

..a poor speller who did not help [peers]

handwriting that is difficult to decipher

does not actually read silently, but instead feigns silent reading

Rudenga, 1992

When she needs to respond in writing, her ideas are based on her own experiences, comments made by other people, or she returns to the text to find a specific answer. Perhaps she picks up a few words or ideas from her brief, cursory approach, but leans on other tactics to show she has read.

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