Problem Thought Due To:              Proposed Solution

Sensory Motor Integration           SMI training*

Visual Perceptual processing          Visual processing activities*

                                                  VAKT?; Irlen lenses*  

General Discipline                         Independent   seat work?; "strict" teachers? school uniforms?

Specific behavior problems           Reinforcement; token systems; time-out; response cost;

                                                  self-monitoring; contracting; child centered or high interest


Insufficient exposure/practice    Increase engaged time-on-task

General language skills                 Language training

Phonemic awareness                     Phonemic Awareness training

Auditory Discrimination              Auditory Discrimination training

Grapheme-Phoneme corr.             Explicit phonics instruction: Fernald; Gillingham; DISTAR; SRA'

                                                LiPS; Merrill; Open Court; Hermann; Wilson

Use of Context Cues                   Predictable text; pictures; prediction; discussion; engage prior

                                                knowledge; strategy training

Lack of Fluency                         Repeated readings; extended practice; classwide peer tutoring

Motivation                                 High success rate; appropriate difficulty with high interest content;

                                                reinforcement; teacher enthusiasm; goal setting; attribution training;

                                                child-centered curriculum; whole language; language experience;    

                                                peer mediation; parent involvement; Computer-assisted instruction

Anxiety/Emotional disturbance    relaxation therapy; self-monitoring of attention; cognitive focusing;                                                  high interest reading material; languge experience

Understanding the purpose         Child-centered curriculum; meaning focus; direct explanation

Comprehension                           Language/vocabulary training; whole language; basic skills; text

                                                enhancements; self-questioning strategies; reciprocal teaching


*questionable, or lack of direct research support for students with reading problems