I dont have powerpoint overheads for this class, so I will just provide some notes.
Good writing example -- Lincoln
Examples of writing of some primary-elementary grade students with disabilities, in response to a "story starter":
When I woke up this morning, I found a crumpled up old paper bag next to the bed.
note differences/similarities in similarities, style, composition, topic, length
samples of writing of normally achieving students
e-mail writing of individuals with special needs
"paratactic" structure: retains the forms of oral expression; lack of complexity of sentence structure, contains numerous simple phrases joined by conjunctions such as "but" and "and".
Calculation of T-units:
Total words in a passage, divided by the number of independent and independent + dependent clauses. One measurable characteristic of maturing writing.
"Sentence combining activities," to improve sentence structure
It started to rain. I went inside.
Englerts examples of writing as a shared group activity in primary grades. Writing as communicating with a specific audience. Activities to promote communication.
Writing from models: thank-you note:
Address the giver
Activities to promote use of different types of words,
Action words (verbs)
He jumped and shouted.
Action helpers (adverbs)
The dog ran quickly
Describing words (adjectives)
The sick girl went home.
Use of these words, and number of total words in a written product, can be placed on a graph or chart.
Harris & Graham (1992)
Five steps for beginning writing
1. Look at the picture first
2. Brainstorm for ideas
3. Write down story reminder: W,W,W, What=2, How=e
4. Fill in story reminder
5. Write the story
Number of story parts can be graphed.
WRITER/COPS (U. Kansas)
WRITE every other line
READ for meaning
INTERROGATE self using COPS
TAKE paper to someone for help
EXECUTE final copy
Peer revising strategy
1. Listen and read along
2. Tell what the paper is about and what you liked best.
3. Read and make notes-Is everything clear?
Can details be added?
4. Discuss suggestions with the author
1. Check you rpaper and correct errors.
2. Exchange papers and check for errors in
3. Discuss corrections
Six types of self-instruction
1. Problem definition
2. Focusing of attention and planning
4. Self-Evaluating and error correcting
5. Copying and self-control
2. methods for getting started.
3. narrowing topic
4. outlining major subheadings
5. outlining minor details
6. organizing ideas
7. writing first drafts
8. researching topics
1. Proofing for spelling, mechanics, and general format
2. Proofing for adequate organization of ideas and content coverage
3. Revising based on 1 and 2
4. Re-editing and handing in assignment
Writing Process checklist
Time and Place
Understanding the task
Seeking and organizing information
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