Receptive (listening, understanding) Expressive (speaking)
Identify ideas, feelings construct appropriate grammatical expression coordinate appropriate speech producing mechanism to produce speech.
Language sample by asking child to tell a story or relate an event. Transcribed sample can be evaluated for pronunciation, fluency, syntax, morphology, and semantics. Ask: Does the vocabulary match intent?Sentences fit together meaningfully? Connected by references to time and space?
Oral Language Programs
Should be taught or reinforced by all people in a childs environment. Should occur in natural environments as much as possible. Should be implemented as early as possible. Use commercial, teacher-made, materials from the "natural" setting
Commercial Language Programs
May be good for some students but not others May need some modification to address specific needs Should be supplemented with materials in the classroom
A. Identity Polars Prepositions Pronouns Multiple Attributes Comparatives-Superlatives B. Action Same-Different Only Categories Plurals Why Verbs of Sense (feels) Verb Tense In-Then Before-After C. Parts Or All One Some All None
General Strategies (Salend, 1990)Modeling Role-playing Prompting Coaching Scripting
Language StimulationVocabulary Developmentfacilitate language leadership activities, social interactions, dramatic play, nonverbal
reading, writing, general conversation teacher developed; language programs start with familiar objects, functions (verbs)
Listening Skills (Forster & Doyle)
Prepare materials (tape, video, outline, list) State purpose Organize prelistening (outline, new words) Present information Clarify (students ask questions when appropriate) Recapitulate (students describe from memory) Summarize (students create a summary) Test, grade, evaluateListening Comprehension Skills
Following directions Listening for Main Ideas Vocabulary (preview) Interpretation (feelings, meanings) Listening for sequence (directions, story) Critical listening (subjective v. objective) Syntactical/Morphological Skill Building
Correction (teacher corrects mistakes) Expansion (increase brief utterances) Expatiation (adds semantic features) Completion ("Yesterday we _____") Combination (sentence combining) Revision (retelling in own words) Phonological Production
Articulation difficulties ("wed wabbit") Voice disorders (timber, pitch) Speech dysfluencies (stuttering) Often referred to speech/language pathologist Providing a Language
Develop conducive setting (groups, play areas, bring in objects to class) Provide opportunities (provide talking activities Opportunities for different purposes, audiences (guests, older/younger students) Encourage student speech. Intervention Activities
Introduce naming and other language in outdoor activities. Labeling, grouping classroom objects Students raise hand, stand up when they hear certain word in a story Following a list of directions Describe an object to another child who can not see it "How are these things alike/different?"
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