Below are some editing symbols that I commonly use in marking student papers. If you have questions about them, ask me. Here is a good website offering concise definitions of grammatical and punctuation errors and how to correct them:

cap = capitalization. The letter indicated should be capitalized.

cs = comma splice. You have joined two separate sentences with a comma.

= delete symbol. Delete the letter, word(s), or punctuation mark indicated.

frag = sentence fragment. Your sentence lacks a completely conjugated verb.

lc = lower case. A letter that you have capitalized should be lower case.

= paragraph. Begin a new paragraph here.

p = punctuation. Punctuation mark missing or incorrect.

pn agr = pronoun agreement; the pronoun you have chosen does not agree in number with its antecedent. This includes using "their" when the antecedent is a single person (like "he" "she" or "one").

ref? = reference. Not clear what antecedent your word or phrase is intended to refer back to.

rep = repetition. Unnecessary repetition of wording or concepts.

rt = run together sentence. You have put two separate sentences together with no mark of punctuation between them.

sp = spelling. You have mispelled a word.

s-v agr = subject/verb agreement; the verb form you have chosen does not agree in number with its subject.

wordy = You're using more words than you need to convey your meaning clearly.

ww = wrong word. The word you have chosen does not convey the meaning that you apparently intend.