HIST 100 Section 047

Weekly Focus Page

On this page you will find the issues, themes, facts, and questions that will be emphasized in each week's class meeting. Here you will also find what to know for quizzes and other written assignments.

This vase depicts the ancient Greek goddess Athena, goddess of warfare, artisanry, and learning. In this picture she has laid down her battle shield and is writing on a tablet. The image comes from the Perseus collection.

***Your final exam will be held on May 14 from 7:30 to 10:15 AM in our regular classroom. Here is a study guide.***

Due in Week 1, January 29

Topic: The Ancient World; Egypt; the Near East


the Introduction (pages xxx-xxxi); the Focus Questions at the beginnings of Chapters 1, 2, and 3; the Conclusions at the ends of Chapters 1 and 2; pages 5 - 7; look at the Code of Hammurabi on page 9 (we will be dealing with it somewhat later); pages 10 (starting with "Culture of Mesopotamia") - 13; pages 15 - 21; pages 27 (starting with "The Hebrews") - 33; pages 36 (starting with "The Persian Empire") - 42 (we will be emphasizing the relationships among religion, justice system, government, and economy in various cultures, so concentrate on that in reading about the Persians); pages 45 - 54; page 57 (on Herodotus)

Videotaped Lecture: Lecture 1 (the first lecture on the first tape): Prof. Mattusch.

Things to know for the class meeting and the quiz on Jan. 29

(These are NOT the exact questions that I will ask on the quiz. They represent general issues that I will ask about, and I will ask about only THREE of them on the quiz. The rest will be needed for the class discussion. You will be able to get all the information you need by watching the first videotaped lecture, reading the Spielvogel textbook, and consulting your notes from 1/22.)

1. Know what the terms BC, AD, BCE, and CE stand for. Know which time period each term refers to.

2. Other than old or ancient writings, what are some things that historians examine in order to study the past? What are some questions that historians ask in order to try to understand the past?

3. What did the Egyptians use pyramids for?

4. What are some differences between ancient Egyptian, ancient Hebrew/Jewish, and ancient Persian/Zoroastrian religions? (Consider things such as what these religions said people were, whether they saw all people as the same, how many gods or divine beings they believed in, and what role their god(s) or divine being(s) played in government and law, as far as these issues are mentioned in your text.) (This question will NOT be part of the quiz, but class discussion will not proceed unless students can answer the question.)

5. Know what is meant by the term 'classical.' What is evidence that Greek, Roman, or Egyptian architecture is viewed as 'classical' today?

6. What are some features that historians say characterize a civilization? Approximately when did the first Western (actually Middle Eastern) civilizations flourish?


Due in Week 2, February 5

Topic: Ancient Greece and Rome

Essay topic

Read the selection from Code of Hammurabi (page 9 of the Spielvogel text) and the selection from the Twelve Tables (page 97 of the Spielvogel text). Then select either Option 1 OR Option 2. (IF YOU DID NOT TAKE THE QUIZ ON JAN. 29, please write an essay on Option 1 AND an essay on Option 2, as a make-up. If you did take the quiz, do just one option.)

Option 1. Of the ancient laws listed in these selections, which law seems to you the strangest, or the most different from the laws you are used to? Explain: in what ways is it strange or different from the laws you are accustomed to? How if at all do the values reflected in this law seem to differ from the ones you are accustomed to? Explain. Compare the way this ancient law portrays humans and their relationships to the way you see them.

Option 2. Of the ancient laws listed in these selections, which law seems to you the most similar to the laws you are used to? Explain: In what ways is it similar to the laws you are accustomed to? In what if any ways is it different? How do the values reflected in this law seem to be similar to the ones you are accustomed to? Explain. Compare the way this ancient law portrays humans and their relationships to the way you see them.

  1. the Focus Questions and Conclusions to Chapters 3-6 (if you read the Focus Questions first, and then just seek out those parts of the chapters that answer the Focus Questions, you will pick up all the important points, and you'll understand the chapters better).
  2. Who was Homer and what is the importance of his work to historians?
  3. Why did the early Greeks (say, before 400 BCE) set up colonies? Were the colonies dependent on or independent of their source countries? What was a polis? (The video lecture will help here.)
  4. pages 49-64; 67-76; 78-81 - focus on the nature of Alexander's empire, the development of science and philosophy and religion in the "Hellenistic" period (what does "Hellenistic" mean?), the interaction and spread of Greek and other ideas to new places that maintained cultural and political autonomy; 83-88 [to "Roman Conquest of Italy"] and 90-96 (get an idea of the periods of Roman history); 99-104; 106-113; 116 ("Roman Law")-126.

In the Course Reader (the book with pictures of buildings on the cover), read pages 21-23 (on the state humans are supposedly in, and what we should do given our situation), 25 (same issues, contrasting perspective), 27-28 and 30-31 (to get an idea of what the "research techniques" of ancient Greek historians were), 32-35 (What kind of democracy is Pericles praising? Why does he feel he needs to defend it in a speech?), 37-39 (on the nature of ancient Roman democracy, and its differences and similarities with respect to ancient Greek democracy, and modern democracies).


Due in Week 3, February 12

Topic: Late Antiquity, Early Christianity, the Byzantine Empire, Early Christianity

  1. Intercultural influences and interactions among Germanic tribes, Vikings, Slavs, Romans, Greeks, Muslims, Christians, Jews, Arabs, etc. Which ideas and ways of living spread widely? How? What roles do cities play?
  2. Changes in ways of life for large numbers of people: What is writing used for? (Recall that the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Hebrews, and Mycenaeans used writing mainly for religious purposes, royal decrees, and in some cases accounting. The Greeks and Romans used writing for these purposes plus literature, philosophy, and science, not only for religious and royal purposes but for a wider population.) Who is literate in Byzantine society, in Viking society, in the Western Roman Empire? How does trade change in the period under study? How is land ownership organized in rural areas in Europe in the period under study? What are the general reasons for the various wars that are fought during this period? (For example, are they fought for religious reasons? Economic reasons? Reasons of political consolidation? Invasions by nomads?)
  3. Introduction and development of new ideals and ways of living: the monastic system in Christianity; Jewish, Christian, and Islamic scholarship with different goals than earlier Greek and Roman scholarship; spread of new ideas and restrictions about social life, family life, morality in general
  4. Differences and divisions that arose between the Western and Eastern (Byzantine) parts of the Roman Empire

In the Course Reader (the book with pictures of buildings on the cover), read pages 43-49 and 66-73. (You are welcome to read the other selections in that chapter of the Course Reader as well, of course, but pages 43-49 and 66-73 are the ones on which we will focus. Don't neglect the Course Reader; your mid-semester paper will use material from it!)


***Mid-Semester Paper Assignment***

This paper will be due in class on March 5. It is to be 4 to 5 pages long (1200-1500 words), typed double-spaced, 12-point font, one-inch margins all around. Longer papers will be accepted; shorter ones will not. Do not copy the question you choose into the paper; just answer it.

Choose ONE of the following two topics. Be sure to answer all parts of each numbered topic you select. Do not simply copy information from the text; your paper must show that you can both summarize and analyze sources, and that you can support your assertions with reasons and explanations. You do not need to use any sources other than the Spielvogel textbook, the CourseReader, and your class notes. It is all right to use quotations from sources, as long as those quotations make up no more than one-fifth of the total length of your paper. You must also explain what you think the quotations mean. Be sure to document properly any quotations you use: give the title of the source, the author, and the page number. If you do not know how to do this, consult your instructor, or the Writing Center (Robinson A, first floor), or the Library Reference section (either in person or on-line). For more information and tips on writing papers for HIST 100, go to www.gmu.edu/courses/phil/ancient/hppr2.htm. (This site is also reachable from our main Section 047 site.) For information about grading, see the course syllabus, under "Course Requirements."

Topic Questions (CHOOSE ONE)

Topic 1. Go over the essay on pages 45-49 of the Course Reader. This essay was originally a chapter of a longer work by the historian Peter Brown, entitled The World of Late Antiquity AD 150-750. Brown claims that the Christian church grew in the second and third centuries AD (CE) largely because it offered a "radical sense of community" (page 49) at a time when the towns and cities of the Roman Empire had become impersonal places, places where many people no longer knew their role in society. Briefly summarize Brown's explanation of the growth of the Christian church in the second and third centuries, and then analyze Brown's explanation in terms of the following questions and issues: What evidence does Brown offer to support his claims? Find (in his essay) three examples of such evidence -- stories of individuals, archeological evidence, artistic evidence, texts, or anything else that interests you. Explain what Brown tries to prove with each one of these examples. In each case, do you think that Brown provides adequate evidence to support the point he is trying to make with the example you mention? Why or why not?

Topic 2. Go over historian Irfan Shahid's essay "Byzantium and the Islamic World," on pages 67-73 of the Course Reader. As Prof. Butler points out in his introduction to Shahid's essay, Shahid has worked to show "the Arabs and early Islam as part of, not separate from, the Mediterranean world of late antiquity" (page 66). Shahid demonstrates the longstanding connection between Islam and what we now call the West by describing the key role Muslim Arabs played in transmitting Greek ideas to Europe in the Middle Ages. Briefly summarize Shahid's explanation of this process, and then analyze it in terms of the following questions and issues: What evidence does Shahid offer to support his claims? Find three examples of such evidence -- stories of individuals or families, geographical evidence, "loan words", texts, mathematical and scientific developments, or whatever else interests you. Explain what Shahid tries to prove with each of these examples. In each case, do you think that Shahid provides adequate evidence to support the point he is trying to make with the example you mention? Why or why not?

Note. Students will not be graded on what their opinions are, nor on whether they agree with the instructor on matters of opinion. Students will be graded on their comprehension of texts, their knowledge of factual information from the course, and their explanations and support of their assertions.


Due in Week 4, February 19

Topic: The Middle Ages

The quiz will cover the readings listed below.

Specific things you will need to know for the quiz and the class discussion:

  1. What were the Crusades? What was at least one of the centuries in which Crusades occurred? Who fought whom in the Crusades? (Be able to identify two religions and at least one country or region involved.) Where did the fighting take place? (Give at least one city, country, or region.) Why were the Crusades fought? (Give at least one reason.)
  2. What was the manorial system? Under the manorial system, what was the relationship between a lord of the manor and a serf? What was a vassal?
  3. Identify: Charlemagne (Charles the Great), Saladin, Joan of Arc. (Be able to name at least one thing each of them did that is of historical significance, and be able to match each person with his or her century.)
  4. What were burghers or bourgeois? (The two terms mean the same thing; 'burghers' is the German term and 'bourgeois' is the French term.) How did the burghers or bourgeois change Europe politically and socially?
  5. What was the Black Death? Why was it called "Black"? Name one way that the Black Death changed Europe (other than the mere fact that it reduced the number of people).

In the Course Reader (the book with pictures of buildings on the cover): In Chapter 4, Introduction and Glossary. (You don't have to memorize all the words in the Glossary, but you should read it before doing the rest of the readings. In doing the readings and watching the video you should consult the Glossary whenever an unfamiliar term appears.)

In the Spielvogel textbook (the book with a picture of a banquet on the cover): Read Chapters 9 through 11. Review pages 131-135 and 154-170 in Chapter 8; they will help with the video lecture and with Chapters 9 through 11.

Read the Glossary in the Course Reader first, do the Spielvogel textbook reading second, and THEN watch the video lecture. Professor Miller, who gives the video lecture, designed the lecture to be viewed after the reading, as she notes in the Introduction to Course Reader Ch. 4.

  1. During the Middle Ages or Medieval Period, no one called their time period "the Middle Ages"! The period got that name later, during a period that designated itself the "Modern Era." At that time, people in Europe and the Americas wanted to acknowledge that there had been certain widespread changes in ways of life, forms of government, religious traditions, and so on. At least, these particular changes had happened in much of Europe and parts of the Middle East. There had been several waves of such changes since the "Ancient Period" or "Antiquity" (a period that is supposed to extend roughly from the beginning of Middle Eastern civilizations to the end of the Roman Empire). There were other periods that came in the "middle" between the Ancient and Modern periods, and the longest and most widespread of these came to be known as the "Middle Ages." In between the Middle Ages and the Modern period historians identify at least 2 other periods, which we will read about shortly. These periods are the Humanistic Period and the Renaissance. Their dates vary from region to region, because they represent changes and developments that occurred in different places at different times. In some places in Europe these developments did not arrive at all, and it is sometimes said that these places moved directly from the Middle Ages (or a medieval way of life) directly into the Modern Era. Russia, for example, ended its feudal landholding system and freed its serfs only in 1861, centuries after the rest of Europe.
  2. It is in the Middle Ages that we see the development of cultural, political, and religious divisions that will separate Western and Northern Europe from Eastern Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean, Northern Africa, and the Middle East. At the same time, these cultural, political, and religious alignments united the various parts of Western and Northern Europe in ways that they had never been united before. The Christianity of the Byzantine Empire united far-flung peoples too, even after the fall of the Byzantine Empire. Islam also brought together diverse peoples politically, culturally, and religiously in this period. Although Jews were a minority in Europe and the Middle East, they spread throughout all of these areas as well.
  3. In reading, consider how during the Middle Ages life in Northern and Western Europe became different from life in the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires to the East, and vice-versa; consider also whether they retained similarities. For example, in each area, what is the main or official language? What are the main economic activities? What is the social structure? What are the relationships between people of different social positions--what if anything are they expected to do for one another? What is the educational system like: Who can get an education? What subjects will these people learn? Who will teach them (religious figures? someone else? are these teachers trained, or can anyone who decides to teach do so?)? What books will they read? What languages are used in education?
  4. What opportunities does a person in Western or Northern Europe in the Midle Ages have to meet people from other areas, people of other religions, and so on? What others is he or she likely to meet? (This will of course vary somewhat by area and social rank.) Similarly, what opportunities does a person in the Byzantine Empire or the Ottoman Empire have to meet people of other religions and areas? Do you think that the opportunities (or lacks or opportunities) for contact had anything to do with the Crusades, with religious persecutions, etc.? Why/why not?


Due in Week 5, February 26

Topic: The Renaissance in Europe

  1. In the Spielvogel textbook (the book with a picture of a banquet on the cover), read Chapters 12 and 13. In Chapter 13, we will look this week mainly at issues from pages 260-266 top, and 273 to the end of the chapter. We'll look at the rest of the chapter the next week.Again, read with each chapter's Focus Questions and the Conclusions in mind. In the case of Chapter 13, skip the third focus question for now.
  2. In the Course reader (the book with pictures of buildings on the cover): pages 119-120, 131-133, 135. (You are certainly encouraged to read the other parts of Chapter 5, and to ask questions about them in class.) When reading these selections, ask yourself: how does the writer see himself? What does he think distinguishes him from previous generations, or from people of other lands? (Notice that at least some of these writers seem to be concerned to show that they are doing something new, or doing something that has not been done for a very long time.)

Lecture 5, the first lecture on the third tape.

  1. The Renaissance was a movement mainly of the middle classes and the nobility. How if at all did it affect people of other social classes?

2. (This question will be addressed more directly in Week 6, but the background for the answer is found in this week's reading.) The Protestant Reformations and Catholic Counter-Reformation had significant support from farmers and artisans (but also others). How did these movements affect others in Europe?

3. We will look in Weeks 6 and 7 at the rise of science in Europe, and also at the beginning of European exploration and colonization outside of Europe. What do you think the Renaissance and Reformations (Protestant and Catholic), or the forces that gave rise to them, had to do with these further developments?

4. The European Renaissance was a period when many influential people considered themselves to have broken away from the kind of life and interests of the past few centuries. The people who felt they were part of a "Renaissance" (literally, "rebirth") thought that they were returning to the great things of the earlier (Greek and Roman) past, things that had been lost, forgotten, or ignored through the Middle Ages. At the same time, even the people who saw theirs as a new era did not think they were returning entirely to the ways of the ancient times they saw as "classical"; they thought they were making new developments too. And they acknowledged that much of what had developed in the Middle Ages persisted into the Renaissance. Therefore in doing the reading for this week, consider in what senses the Renaissance represented a return to things of the Greek and Roman past; in what ways it presented completely new developments; and in what ways it continued things that had developed over the Middle Ages.

5.The Renaissance did not happen all over Europe at the same time. Similar movements in art, thought, politics, business, economics, literature, and science developed in different places at different times. Italy was the first to see such developments, and was perhaps the most strongly affected by them. Be aware of when, if at all, these developments occurred in other parts of Europe. Russia, for example, was barely affected by them.

6. This leads to 2 other questions: Why are the Middle East and the Eastern Mediterranean (Greece, for example) not mentioned in our text at this point? And, why are the scholars and artists of the Renaissance interested so much in Greek and Roman learning, as opposed toEgyptian, Babylonian, and Persian learning?

These questions are related. The Middle East and the Eastern Mediterranean areas are under Byzantine Christian and Muslim rule during the time of the Italian Renaissance, and by 1453 are all under Muslim rule. As we have seen, the Byzantine Christians and the Muslims had different social, economic, and political organizations from the Western Europeans, and did not develop the manorial system, nor the burgh system that later complemented it. The study of ancient Greek and Roman (and Persian) texts remained strong in both Byzantine Christian and Muslim institutions of higher learning, from antiquity straight through this period. So too did scientificand particularly mathematical research, especially in the Muslim universities. People in these regions did not see a need for a rebirth, since they did not feel that the ancient learning had died. (They did see that it had been transformed by its contact with monotheistic religion.)

As for why European scholars were interested mainly in Greek and Roman works, one major factor is that that is what was available. In fact, there was a great interest on the part of Europeans in the ancient Egyptians, but very little information about them was available in Europe. No one in Europe or the Middle East knew hieroglyphics (the ancient Egyptian writing system, no longer in use in Egypt at the time), so the only information on the Egyptians that was available in Europe was in Greek and Roman and Arabic texts. Some material on Persian ideas was also available, but not much. Europeans knew Latin (it was still the language of the Catholic Church), and some knew ancient Greek (many Christian texts were in Greek), and some knew Arabic -- the language of Muslim scholarship, which was valued by Europeans especially in science. Many Greek and Roman works were by this time available only in Arabic translation. So the main branches of ancient learning that were available were Greek and Roman.

Moreover, when rich Italians wanted to build new palaces, it seems that everywhere theydug a foundation they uncovered ancient Roman (and sometimes Greek) ruins! Some of the things they uncovered were boxes and storerooms containing ancient writings. When they went to visit libraries in monasteries, they also found forgotten writings. So ancient Greek and Roman materials were all around them. And since the Italians were living in what had been the central part of ancient Rome, and many must have been the descendants of ancient Romans, they saw Roman works especially as the works that formed their heritage.

While people in other parts of Europe did not see themselves as descendants of the Romans or Greeks, they recognized Greek and Roman learning as useful and interesting -- and added twists of their own.


Due in Week 6: March 5

Topic: The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries: Religious Reformations, Overseas Exploration, the Beginning of the Modern Period in Europe

  1. In the Spielvogel textbook (picture of a banquet on cover), read Chapters 13 through 15. As always, use the Focus Questions at the beginnings of chapters and the Conclusions at the ends of chapters as a guide to the main points of the reading. Pages and sections to focus on in Ch. 13: pages 260 to 268 (up to "The Spread of the Protestant Reformation"), 271 ("The Reformation in England") to 278. In Ch. 14: 280 to 296, 301. In Ch. 15: 303 to 320 (up to "The World of European Culture"), section "West Meets East" on 321, 323.
  2. In the Course Reader (pictures of buildings on cover): pages 191-197 (introduction and questions by Prof. Holt of GMU; excerpts from essays by Juan Gines de Sepulveda and Bartolome de las Casas). Read with Prof. Holt's questions in mind.

Certainly you are welcome to read more of Chapter 6 of the Course Reader, and to ask questions about it in class, but that is not required.

  1. So far in this course we have studied about many wars and many countries' attempts, by war and other means, to expand their territory or conquer others. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in Europe saw much more war and expansion. Often, though, the reasons for the wars and expansions were different from what had gone on in the past. The ways in which wars and expansions were carried out often were different too. Consider each of the wars and territorial expansions you will read about in these chapters. When and how are the reasons for the wars or expansions similar to the ones we have read about from earlier times? When and how are the reasons different? When and how are the means by which these wars and expansions are carried out different from what we have seen of earlier times? (Some wars are not aimed at territorial expansion, of course, and some territorial expansions are not carried out by force, so you should look at each separately.)
  2. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries several countries of Western Europe tried to explore and to colonize other areas: parts of Asia, Africa, and the Americas. In what ways were the explorations and colonies of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries similar to the explorations and colonies of the ancient Greeks, and in what ways were they different? Were the reasons for colonization and exploration the same in both cases?
  3. In all of these developments in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (war, expansion of various types, colonization, exploration) what is the role (or roles) of religion?What new civil rights do some people obtain in some countries of Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? Where does this occur? Within the countries where the new rights are granted, who gets these rights, and who does not?
  4. What new ideas do the philosophers Hobbes and Locke develop concerning the nature of human beings, the rights of human beings, and the kinds of government that are most appropriate? (In the reading for Week 7, we will see how these ideas are developed further and put into action.)


Due in Week 7: March 19

Topic: The Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and the French Revolution

  1. In the Spielvogel textbook (brown cover with picture of a banquet), read Chapters 16 through 19. As always, use the Focus Questions at the beginnings of chapters and the Conclusions at the ends of chapters as a guide to the main points of the reading. See also "Additional Issues" below for a general idea of things to be aware of.

Pages and sections to focus on in Chapter 16: The chapter is short and pretty much all of it is important. However, you will NOT be required to know the details of the various scientific and philosophical theories that are sketched in this chapter! The important points to know are the following:

a. The new ideas that develop in this period concerning the relationships between the earth, the other planets, the sun, and the other stars;

b. The new emphasis on observation, calculation, and eventually scientific method as ways to learn about the universe and the things in it;

c. Newton's notion of a universe that worked like a machine, with mathematically predictable behavior according to universal laws of motion; and his introduction of the idea of gravity;

d. How and why conflicts arose between this new science and the teachings of the religious universities;

e. How some scientists and philosophers tried to resolve these conflicts;

f. The role of women in the development of the new science.

Pages and sections to focus on in Chapter 17:

a. Pages 343 to the top of 350;

b. "The 'Woman Question'" on 351 to the top of 353 (before "Culture and Society");

c. The sections entitled "Crime and Punishment," "Religion and the Churches," and "Toleration and Religious Minorities" on 357-358.

Pages and sections to focus on in Chapter 18:

a. "Enlightened Absolutism?" on 363-364;

b. "Great Britain" on 364, through the left side of 373;

c. "New Methods of Finance and Industry" on 374 (pay attention also to the map on 374) through 380.

Pages and sections to focus on in Chapter 19: Once again, pretty much the whole chapter is important. Issues to focus on:

a. Reasons why the American Revolution and French Revolution occurred;

b. New types of government and laws (including constitutions) that were put into place in the new American and French republics;

c. How Napoleon became Emperor of France, what principles he tried to introduce into Europe during his brief Grand Empire, and what factors led to his downfall.

2. In the Course Reader (blue cover with pictures of buildings):

The section entitled "Declarations of Rights" on 221-230. The questions on page 221 make a good guide. Although only pages 222-226 were written during the 18th century, the U.N. document of 1948 on 227-230 shows the ways in which people of countries world-wide in the 20th century thought that the 18th-century notions of rights should be developed; the attempts to extend these notions of rights to people all over the world; and the attempts to develop an agreement about human rights that would be in effect not only within countries, but also amongcountries.

  1. What is the importance of the notion of the "universal" that becomes prominent in science (consider Newton, for example) and in political and social thought (consider the French "Declaration of the Rights of Man" - presumably, of all of mankind - and its influence on the later "Universal Declaration of Human Rights")?
  2. How do government and learning begin to separate from religious domination during the 18th century in Europe and North America? Instead of referring to religious authorities to explain why scientific principles were true or why certain laws were appropriate, what new reasons did some scientists (Galileo, Newton, etc.) begin to seek when asked why a scientific principle was true; what new reasons did political thinkers (Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu) begin to seek when asked why their political principles were appropriate? (This question is related to #1; can you see how?) Note that the thinkers of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment did not always reject religion entirely; many of them invoked the Judeo-Christian idea of God in their work, and considered themselves to be people of faith. But they used the notion of a divine being in new ways, and they did not generally accept traditional religious teachings where they thought that these teaching conflicted with reason. (They thought that God gave humans the power to reason, and that if we failed to use this power wherever it was appropriate, we were being ungrateful and disrespectful to God. Reason and faith, they thought, could co-exist in the same person.)
  3. At the same time that new notions of human rights were being written into law, the Atlantic slave trade was thriving. Slavery in the Americas, as described by the French writer cited on page 377 of the Spielvogel textbook, was more brutal than what was practiced in the ancient world (and unlike slavery in the ancient Mediterranean, slaves in the Americas had virtually no chance of earning their freedom). Serfdom still existed in Russia. There was also indentured servitude, where wealthier people who owned property in the Americas would pay to have a poor European sent to work for them in the Americas. In principle, the poor person was only supposed to serve the wealthier person for a few years, until the price of his or her boat fare and food had been earned; but in practice the indentured servants were often bound to servitude for most of their lives. Slavery and indentured servitude existed not only in colonies of countries that had no declaration of rights (the colonies of Spain, for example), but also in British and French colonies and the new United States -- places that were supposed to guarantee rights and freedoms of all people. In some cases, slaves who had become free could not vote.

This conflict between law and actual practice was noticed in the 18th century, both by slaves (there were numerous slave revolts around the Caribbean around the time of the French Revolution; many of these were successful) and by others. However, governments were slow to act to change things. There were those people who, like Sepulveda in last week's Course Reader selection, believed that slavery was appropriate or even beneficial for some groups of enslaved people.

4. At the same time, even as more women in Europe began to work in science, philosophy, literature, and the arts, and even as these women's work was praised by some of the top men in their fields, there was also an increase in attempts to prove that women were incapable of real intellectual and cultural achievement. (For example, the influential male philosophers Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, and John Locke took very seriously the work of female philosophers such as Damaris Masham, Margaret Cavendish, and Queen Christina of Sweden. Yet today, few people have heard of the work of these women.)

Despite the declarations of rights, many also felt that women should not have the same rights as men. (For example, women did not have the same voting rights or property rights as men in Western Europe and the U.S. until the 19th and 20th centuries.)

5. Ancient Greece and Rome made use of the idea of civil rights -- rights and protections that a community granted to a person who was a citizen or a member of a citizen's family. (Residents who were not citizens had fewer rights and protections.) In general, these rights came with responsibilities and duties.

In the 18th century we see the development of the notion of human rights -- rights and protections that are to be granted to all humans by all governments. Of course, each community still sets its own civil rights, which we say are not supposed to interfere with our human rights.

What are the advantages of the notion of human rights? Do you see any disadvantages? Can you see any reasons why it might be difficult to get nations and peoples to agree on what is a human right?


Due in Week 8, March 26

Topic: The Industrial Revolution and the Course of the Nineteenth Century

  1. Workers in Europe and later the U.S. came to feel that emancipation from slavery or serfdom was not enough to ensure a decent life -- or sometimes any life at all (death from starvation and disease was a real danger for 19th - century factory workers, farmers, and city dwellers). What further rights (or protections of existing rights) did they begin to demand? What reforms did they call for? (See pages 420-421, 469-470.)
  2. Identify: James Watt. (See hints for answering identification questions.) Be sure to include in your answer something about the effect of his invention on some industry (it affected several industries, but you only need to mention one here).
  3. Identify: Garibaldi.
  4. Identify: liberalism (in the 19th-century sense), nationalism, socialism (see also the Glossary in the Spielvogel text).

  1. In the Spielvogel textbook (picture of a banquet on cover), read Chapters 20 through 22 and also pages 464 to the bottom of 470 in Chapter 23. As always, use the Focus Questions at the beginnings of chapters and the Conclusions at the ends of chapters as a guide to the main points of the reading. (In Chapter 23, you don't need to look at the Conclusion yet, and only the first two focus questions will be relevant for this week.)

Pages and sections to focus on in Chapter 20: This chapter is short and pretty much all of it is important as background for what is to come.

Pages and sections to focus on in Chapter 21: 423 through "The Greek Revolt" on 428; "The Ideologies of Change" (very important!) on 429 through top left of 438.

Pages and sections to focus on in Chapter 22: 443 through the left side of 459. You don't need to memorize all of the names of the smaller kingdoms and provinces that came together to form the nations of Italy and Germany. Just pay attention to when Italy became a unified nation and when Germany became a unified nation; and pay attention to the processes that each unification involved (wars, treaties and negotiations, etc.) For example, it is important to know that Germany became unified when the kingdom of Prussia came to dominate other areas, while Italy became unified through a combination of factors: The kingdom of Piedmont in the north annexed some areas after a war with Austria, then several other areas joined themselves to Piedmont; meanwhile a military leader named Garibaldi unified most of southern Italy by a combination of war and negotiation; then Garibaldi voluntarily turned over the lands he had won to unify them with the lands the kingdom of Piedmont had won.

2. In the Course Reader (pictures of buildings on cover): pages 233-234; 238-240; 246-247; 248 through the bottom of the last full paragraph on 250; 253-257. (These should help as background to the video lecture.)

  1. Why did the Industrial Revolution arrive in different places at different times?
  2. How did the Industrial Revolution affect population movements both within Europe and between Europe and the rest of the world? How were politics and economics in the Caribbean and Latin America affected by the combination of local independence movements and industrialization in Europe and the U.S.?
  3. How did the freeing of the Russian serfs differ from the freeing of the American slaves? (Look not only at the box on 453, but also at pages 451-454 and 454-455 in the Spielvogel text.)


Due in Week 9, April 2

Topic: Mass Society; the "New Imperialism" of the Late 19th Century

Identifications: I have learned that the final exam is to include identification questions, so it is a good idea to practice answering that sort of question. (The final exam will also include essays, and you have been preparing to answer that sort of question in your short writing assignments and your mid-semester paper.) Here are some things to know for class on April 2. You will not have to hand these in to me, but you will be asked about them, and class discussion will not proceed unless students have prepared these identifications.

  1. Reform Act of 1884 (in Great Britain)
  2. New Imperialism (how is it different from earlier imperialism?)
  3. Women's Suffrage movement ("suffragettes")
  4. Social Darwinism


As always, use the Focus Questions at the beginnings of chapters and the Conclusions at the ends of chapters as a guide to the main points of the reading. Keep in mind also the main questions for the course, as outlined in the Syllabus.

Pay attention to the "Questions" section of the Introduction to Chapter 9 in the Course Reader. The readings above have to do with Questions 2, 6 (just Hobson's position) under "Imperialism," and Questions 1-4 under "Women's Rights."

Video Lecture: Lecture 9 (first lecture on the fifth tape).

General Notes:

  1. Webster's Third New International Dictionary defines 'mass society' this way: "modern urban industrialized society: the society of the mass man, especially when held to be marked by anonymity, high mobility, lack of individuality, and a general dominance of impersonal relationships."
  2. But, what does that mean and what does it have to do with the later 19th century in Western Europe and North America (where "mass society" was supposed to have arisen)? The same dictionary defines one sense of 'mass' as "an aggregate of particles or things making one body or quantity usually of considerable size." That is the relevant sense here. Consider the changes in industrial production and consumption, and the consequent social developments, in the late 19th century in the countries under study. At this time, industry is able to produce large quantities of essentially identical things (bars of soap, for example) very quickly. A soapmaker in the 17th century, say, could make perhaps 100 bars of soap in a week, and thus supply a village or group of villages with soap. Even if this soapmaker could have produced a little more, it would have been too expensive to transport it on foot or horseback. A team of 10 workers in a soap factory in the late 19th century could turn out hundreds of bars of soap in a day, and thus supply a large region, or a whole country, with soap. This is "mass production." Railroads and steamships make the transportation and distribution cheaper and easier. New modes of communication (telegraph, telephone) enable needs to be expressed and decisions made quickly. As competition between soap factories increases, and more soap is available, prices go down, and people can afford more soap (before soap became cheap, poorer people used things such as certain plants for washing, and sometimes had to go without cleansers at all). Thus there is "mass consumption" of soap: large quantities ("aggregates" in the dictionary definition) of people are buying soap. And they are buying the same, centrally-produced soaps, not local products that are made only in small quantities. Also, the soap factories begin to look for new markets to make more money, so the soaps begin to be available all over the world. Even larger masses of soap are produced, and even larger masses of people are buying them.

This means that large numbers ("masses") of people are linked socially and economically, yet in impersonal ways: the producers and consumers may never see one another; many of the factory workers do not see the finished product but only work on part of it or one stage of its production. Also, large numbers of people begin to live in close proximity to one another, without perhaps knowing one another well; they work together or in connected jobs, and form part of a large mass of urban people. These masses of people may have come from different parts of a country or of the world, may be of different faiths, etc.; but they are all somehow involved in industry or are serving those who are (doctors, for example, may set up offices in a city to treat diseases of factory workers). These urban masses had something in common, both within each city and across newly industrialized cities, and they shared some political interests. New newspapers began to address this ("mass press" and today "mass media"); new activities became available and profitable (sports and popular music became "mass entertainment" as they addressed needs and interests of the new urban dwellers); new political groups formed ("mass politics"). Thus "mass society" was so named because it contrasted with the localized, mostly small-scale ways of life and kinds of society that predominated in Western Europe earlier. (This is not to say that the older ways of life and kinds of society disappeared from Western Europe or anywhere else; it's just to say that the old ways were no longer the dominant force in Western Europe.) In the 17th century in Western Europe, most of the things the average person did were focused on his or her local area: farming to produce for one's family and local markets, making pottery that would be used in local areas (or, if one did produce for exporting to foreign markets, one was producing luxury items to be used by only a few people). In the 17th century, most of what the average person used had been made locally or not far away; there were imports but they tended to be expensive. At the end of the late 19th century in Western Europe, the average person was working for or connected to an industry that produced or transported goods over long distances as well as short ones. The average person was also using products that had been made far away as well as those that had been made nearby. The average person in late 19th-century Western Europe was thus part of a large "mass" of people who were economically and socially connected, who used many of the same products (products which were shipped worldwide), and who were anonymously connected to others the world over.


Due in Week 10, 4/9

Topic: The Beginning of the Twentieth Century; Artistic and Cultural Modernism in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

  1. By the beginning of the 20th century, Europe was divided economically in new ways. First, as we have seen, there were great differences in wealth and standard of living within many countries. But there were also differences between regions or countries. Some countries and regions made their living primarily through industrial production and transportation, had high rates of literacy, and had modern forms of communication and transportation (telegraph, telephone, railroads, steamships, etc.) and the latest in medicine. Other countries or regions made their living primarily through agriculture and the gathering of natural resources (coal, trees, etc.). This second group generally had low literacy rates, very little in the way of modern communication and transportation, and very little new agricultural technology or medicine. This division among countries will play an important role in Weeks 11 and 12. ----Name 2 countries or regions of Europe that were heavily involved in industrial production by 1900. Name 2 countries or regions of Europe that were not heavily industrialized by 1900.
  2. By 1900 many artists, writers, and thinkers had begun to believe that there was much more to the world than natural science could explain. They held that unseen, often irrational (not necessarily divine) forces contributed at least as much to human experience as scientifically measurable factors did. This drew some to re-explore religion; but others did not find what they were looking for in religious belief. One thinker who explored these questions was Sigmund Freud. ----According to Freud, what is "repression"? How does it affect people's lives?
  3. ----Who was Cecil Rhodes? What is a colony that he founded, and why did he found it? ----Name a colony that Great Britain held in Africa around 1900; name a colony that Great Britain held in Asia around 1900.----Name a colony that France held in Africa around 1900; name a colony that France held in Asia around 1900.
  4. What was the Triple Alliance? What was the Triple Entente?
  5. Give 2 examples of how colonization, annexation, or racist policies led to nationalism or independence movements among conquered peoples or religious or ethnic minorities in Europe between 1880 and 1914.

1. In the Spielvogel textbook (cover with picture of a banquet), read Chapters 23 through 25.

In Chapter 23, the most important sections will be pages 465 to the bottom of 470 (the economic and psychological effects of the development of the assembly line and specialized mass production will be important); "The Social Structure of Mass Society" on 474-476; "Education and Leisure in the Mass Society" on 477, through 484.

In Chapter 24, important sections will be pages 486 through the top of 488; "Sigmund Freud..." on 489 through the top of 500; [review "The New Imperialism" on 500-501 if needed]; "The Scramble for Africa" on 501 through "India" on 506. "International Rivalry and the Coming of War" on 506 through 509 will be more important in a couple of weeks, but go over it at least once this week. (In the sections of the chapter on science, psychology, and art, it is not necessary to know specific details of things like Freud's theory of behavior, the Curies' discoveries about atoms, the details of Picasso's paintings, and so on. What is more important for purposes of this course is knowing how these theories and ideas differed from what had been offered in the past; how these new theories and ideas continued or developed past trends; how if at all these new theories and ideas responded to or reflected new social and political developments; and how they influenced societies and later events.)

In Chapter 25, please do read the whole chapter this week, and then again when it is reassigned; the events of the first 19 years of the 20th century are complex. However, what will be most important this week is: pages 511 to the top of 520; 523 through 526.

As always, pay attention to the Focus Questions and introductions at the beginnings of chapters, and to the Conclusions at the ends of chapters.

2. In the Course Reader (cover with pictures of buildings), read the Introduction (pages 315-316); the Bergson selections (317-320); the Freud selection (329-332); and the Eliot selection (333-335). Make sure to keep in mind the questions posed (by Prof. Orens) at the beginning of each selection while you read. If you are interested, please do look at the other selections. You are welcome to discuss or ask questions about them in class.

3. If you haven't done so already, see the section of this page on Week 9 (above) for a discussion of what 'mass society' means

  1. The exam will include essay questions, identification questions, and "relative chronology" questions (questions about the order in which events occurred; you won't have to give exact dates). There will NOT be multiple-choice or true-false questions.
  2. The exam will cover the period beginning with the Reformations and overseas exploration. It will not cover the ancient, medieval, or Renaissance periods. You are welcome to mention these earlier periods in your exam answers, but you will not be asked questions specifically about the earlier periods.
  3. The topics for the exam are set by the History Department. However, each HIST 100 instructor writes exam questions for his or her own classes, based on these topics. This means that you will only be asked questions about the things your own section has covered, in the way your own section has covered them.
  4. The topics have not yet been conveyed to the instructors. Once I receive them, I will post a review page for our section, letting you know what the topics are and what kinds of thing you will be asked about.
  5. If students wish, an optional review session can be scheduled. If you are interested, think about what dates and times would work for you.
  6. The exam for our section will be held on May 14 from 7:30 to 10:15 AM in our regular classroom.


Due in Week 11, 4/16

Topic: Russia, the West, and Revolution

Let us therefore begin practicing for answering identification questions. From now until the end of classes, each week I will put some identification questions on this page. Each week before coming to class, students should look up in the textbook the people, places, things, and events listed here under "Identifications." Write down in your notebook one or two sentences (three at most) that clearly characterize who or what these people, places, things, or events were. Be sure to show why these people, places, etc. were or are important. I will then ask you to answer the questions in class. You will be able to read from your notes when you do this practice exercise in class (ALTHOUGH USE OF NOTES WILL NOT BE PERMITTED DURING THE FINAL EXAM), but keep your textbook closed during that part of the class. This is not a quiz (though there will be at least one quiz in weeks to come); it is not graded. However, it is in your interest to do these identification assignments: first, class lectures will not proceed until students have answered the identification questions when they are asked to do so in class; second, this will help you prepare for the final exam. If you became confused when you tried to answer the questions in your notes before class, please say what you were able to come up with, and ask about the parts that confused you.

  1. Archduke Francis Ferdinand
  2. total war (hint: look it up in the glossary in your textbook)
  3. Tsar Nicholas II (note: 'tsar' and 'czar' mean the same thing, namely 'grand ruler' or 'emperor'; these different spellings are 2 different ways to represent a Russian word using the Latin alphabet)
  4. Alexander Kerensky
  5. Bolsheviks
  6. Lenin
  7. U.S.S.R.
  8. Stalin
  9. totalitarian state (look it up in the glossary if it is not clear from Chapter 26 of the Spielvogel textbook)

1. In the Spielvogel textbook (cover with a picture of a banquet), read Chapters 25-27.

Specific pages and sections to focus on: In Chapter 25, pages 511 through the left side of 520; 523 through the top right side of 527; 529 through 532. In Chapter 26, "Retreat from Democracy" on 538; "The Soviet Union" on 545 through the top right side of 548. In Chapter 27, the passages on 559 and 560 dealing with Stalin's negotiations with Britain, France, and Germany; "A German Soldier at Stalingrad" on 564; the passages on life in the Soviet Union during World War Two on 570; "The Aftermath of the War" on 573-576.

(We will be returning to these chapters when we study the World Wars in greater depth in weeks to come.)

As always, pay close attention to the Introductions and Focus Questions at the beginning of each chapter, and to the Conclusions at the end of each chapter.

Some additional questions to help with your understanding of the Russian Revolution and its aftermath:

a. When and why did Russia enter World War One?

b. When and why did Russia pull out of World War One?

c. What events and conditions led to the Russian Revolution, and how did the Revolution begin?

d. What political positions and ideas were promoted by the Bolsheviks, and how did these differ from those of the other parties and groups that took part in the Russian Revolution?

e. How did Lenin and his followers change the political, social, and economic order of their country?

f. To what parts of the world did Communist political ideas spread after World War Two? How? (For example, which other countries took up these ideas independently, and which were pushed to do so by Stalin and other Soviet officials?)

2. In the Course Reader (pictures of buildings on the cover), read the Introduction and the italicized paragraphs that introduce the documents. Try to answer the focus questions on pages 353-354 (in your notes; you don't need to hand this in). Answering these questions may require reading somewhat more than just the italicized paragraphs, but not much more. Just look for the things that answer these questions.


Due in Week 12, 4/23

Topic: World Wars of the 20th Century; Totalitarianism

General note 1: The majority of the students have expressed a preference for an OPTIONAL review session on Tuesday May 7 at our regular class time in our regular classroom. This day is designated "Reading Day," so there are no classes or exams scheduled during that day.

General note 2: Some of the readings and video images may be very disturbing. This week's topic deals among other things with genocide (extermination of groups of people) and brutal warfare. This course has covered other events of terrible violence and cruelty (the Crusades, the Inquisition, the extermination of American Indians by Europeans, the Atlantic slave trade, the Terror after the French Revolution, etc., etc.). But there were not photographs and films of these earlier events as there are of the events of the 20th century, and seeing such records tends to make the terrible events seem more immediate for many people.

  1. Name at least one country that fought on the same side as Austria-Hungary in World War One. Name two countries that fought on the same side as Great Britain (England) in World War One. Name two countries that fought on the same side as Germany in World War Two (these countries are known as the Axis powers). Name two countries that fought on the same side as Great Britain (England) in World War Two (these countries are known as the Allied powers or Allies).
  2. What was the Treaty of Versailles? Why were Germans dissatisfied with it?
  3. What was fascism? (Do not simply state which countries had fascist governments; name at least one aspect of fascism that distinguishes it from democracy, for example.Remember the guidelines for answering identification questions, as given in last week's assignment.)
  4. What events led to the declaration of war by Britain and France in 1939? What was the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of 1939, and who broke it? How?
  5. The Nazis' ambitions for Europe involved moving Germans into other parts of Europe, and moving other groups around (often into Germany) to work and/or be exterminated. Why? (Simply saying that the Nazis thought that Germans, or certain Germans, were better than other people is not enough. You need to say why they thought some people were better than others, and what they thought this meant: how this was related to the massive efforts to move people around and/or kill them.)
  6. During World War Two, many Americans moved to new locations within the country. Who moved to the industrial cities, and why? Who was relocated against their will (note: being drafted into the armed forces does not mean being relocated against one's will, since a person who is unwilling to serve in the armed forces can ask for Conscientious Objector status and do some other service).
  7. Name one way in which nationalism played a role in World War One (either in the events leading up to the war, or in the events of the war itself). Name one way in which nationalism played a role in World War Two (either in the events leading up to the war, or in the events of the war itself).

If some of these topics do not appear on the quiz, they will be part of the in-class discussion.

In-class questions/ preparation for the final exam: This week that part of the class session will involve going over those of the questions above that did not appear on the quiz.

  1. In Chapter 25, the main things to review are pages 515 through 522, and "The Peace Settlement" on 527 through 531. Know which countries fought on each side in World War One.
  2. In Chapter 26, the main pages and sections to focus on are pages 534 through the top left side of 545, and "Authoritarian States" and "The Expansion of Mass Culture and Mass Leisure" on 548 through 549. (The section on "Cultural and Intellectual Trends" that follows is certainly worth reading, but you will not be tested on it.)
  3. Pretty much all of Chapter 27 is important for this week's subject. But you will not be asked about details of battles on pages 560-563. It is important, however, to know which countries fought on each side in World War Two.
  4. In Chapter 28, the main pages and sections to focus on are pages 579 through the top right side of 583; and "Eastern Europe" on 589, through the top partial paragraph on the left side of 592.
  5. As always, pay attention to the Introductions and Focus Questions at the beginnings of chapters, and the Conclusions at the ends of chapters.

  1. Either pages 393 to 396 (Note: the writer of this piece often refers to "Huns." "Huns" as used here is a derogatory British word for "Germans"; Germans are actually not related to Huns) OR 397 to 400 (you are welcome to read both if you like); and
  2. 401 through 404 (just look over briefly to understand some of the issues at stake in World War One and just after it); and
  3. Pages 405 through 412 (look over to see the Fascists' political aims and Hitler's political aims and beliefs) (Note 1: Both Mussolini's government in Italy and Hitler's government in Germany are considered fascist governments; the basic political ideologies were the same.) (Note 2: "Aryan" is the name for the set of ethnic groups to which Hitler thought Germans belonged, and which he thought were the only peoples worthy of use of the Earth; he came to feel that Germans and perhaps Scandinavians were the only "real" Aryans. However, "Aryan" actually refers to a group of people who originated in India and who spread all over Europe and much of Asia; not only Germans should be included as descendants of the original Aryans, and Germans have non-Aryan ancestors as well. In other words, Hitler had no interest in the real meanings of the terms and ideas he used in his theory.); and
  4. Either 423 through 431 OR 432 through 438 (or both if you wish).

  1. The two World Wars resulted in boundary shifts and new patterns of rule not only in Europe but also in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and the Caribbean. In Chapter 28 we will see how various peoples and nationalities came to rule one another or to throw off another's rule after World War Two. In many cases, ethnic or religious groups that were rivals or even enemies wound up sharing one country after a region shook off colonial rule, and this has been a continuing source of conflict (see the "Outlook" section of Sunday 11/18/01's Washington Post for an example of this kind of situation in today's Afghanistan).
  2. Your text shows some of the important differences between fascist and democratic forms of government. It is less clear on the differences between fascist and socialist forms of government, and this is made more confusing by the fact that the name "Nazi" originally stood for "National Socialists" yet the Nazis were fascist and anti-socialist. If you read pages 541-542 carefully, though, you can see that Hitler was just using the name without any intention of socialist policies. As your text notes, the Nazis tried to win support by promising different (and often conflicting) things to different people.

But whereas socialism would call for an end to private ownership of the means of production (farms, factories, railroads, etc.), the Nazis encouraged private ownership of and investment in all kinds of production - as long as the owners supported the Nazis and gave them what they asked for. Whereas socialism is not necessarily anti-democratic or authoritarian (in fact, the communist regime in the U.S.S.R. was considered by many socialists to be not socialist at all), Nazism and all forms of fascism are by definition anti-democratic and authoritarian (see also pages 539-540). Modern Sweden is considered a socialist country, and other countries such as Canada, the United Kingdom, and France have adopted certain policies advocated by socialists (free or low-cost health care for all, for example) -- and these countries are democratic and not authoritarian. So, socialists can democratic or anti-democratic, authoritarian or anti-authoritarian; and anti-democratic parties can be socialist or anti-socialist, etc.


Due in Week 13, 4/30

Topic: Europe from 1945 to the Present

In-class questions/ preparation for the final exam: Here is a list of identifications to prepare for class. You do not need to submit them to me. You do need to know these things, because if students do not know them the class discussion will not proceed.

  1. Cold War
  2. Marshall Plan
  3. Cuban Missile Crisis (your answer should include the countries and leaders involved)
  4. NATO (your answer should include an indication of what the letters stand for)
  5. Civil Rights Act of 1964
  6. perestroika
  7. glasnost
  8. Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi
  9. Berlin Wall
  10. Solidarity (name of political party or movement)


Similarly, it is not necessary to memorize when each Eastern European country came under Soviet domination. However, it is important to know approximately when these things happened.

In Chapter 29, you do not need to memorize things like details of Gorbachev's life or the exact sequence of events in the transition of communist Czechoslovakia into independent Czech and Slovak republics. However, it is important to know how the Eastern European countries freed themselves from Soviet domination and how the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) dissolved -- and what became of it.

The sections on Great Britain and France on pages 615-617, and the section on "Trends in Art and Literature" on 621-622, will not be of great importance for the class discussion.

As always, the Introductions and Focus Questions at the beginnings of chapters, and the Conclusions at the ends of chapters, are a helpful guide.

Videotaped Lecture: Lecture 13.

There will be an optional review session on May 7, in our regular classroom, at regular class time (9:00 - 10:15 AM).

Your final exam will be held on Tuesday May 14, in our regular classroom, from 7:30 - 10:15 AM.

Here is information about the topic content of the final exam.

Make-up final exams for all sections of HIST 100 will be held on Saturday May 11 from 10:30 AM - 1:15 PM in AQ 103. If you are going to have to miss our regularly scheduled final exam, please notify me by May 9 so that I can have a make-up final ready for you for May 11.