FRLN 330:
French and Spanish Women Writers of the Caribbean:
Exile, Identity, and Alienation


The following selected bibliography will help you with your readings, presentations, discussions, research and writing projects. The majority can be found at Fenwick Library’s journal section, on the shelves, or at the media/reserve desk of JC's library. You must present a valid GMU or picture ID card to check out reserve items.








Benitez Rojo, Antonio. The Repeating Island: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective.
        Durham: Duke UP, 1992.     PN849. C3 B46

Burton, Richard D.E., and Fred Reno, eds. French and West Indian: Martinique, Guadeloupe,
        and French Guiana Today.  Charlottesville, VA: UP of Virginia, 1995.   F2151. F83 1995

Gilmore, John.  Faces of the Caribbean.  London: Latin American Bureau Ltd., 2000.
        F2175. G555 2000

Hennessy, Alistair.  “Epilogue: 1898 and all that.” The Cultures of the Hispanic Caribbean.
        Eds. Conrad James and John Perivolaris.  Gainesville, FL: UP of Florida, 2000.  240-257.

Hofman, S.  “Transculturation and Creolization: Concepts of Caribbean Cultural Theory.”
      Latin American Postmodernism.  Ed. Richard A. Young.  Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1997.  73-86

James, Conrad, and John Perivolaris, eds. The Cultures of the Hispanic Caribbean.  Gainsville,
        FL: UP of Florida, 2000.

Kurlansky, Mark.  A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny.  Reading, MA:
        Addison Wesley, 1992.    F2161. K87 1992

Lent, John A., ed.  Caribbean Popular Culture.  Ohio: Bowling Green State University Popular
        Press, c1990.    F1609. 5. C37 1990

Manuel, Petter.L., Kenneth M. Bilby, and Michael D. Largey.  Caribbean Currents: Caribbean
        Music from Rumba to Reggae.  Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1995.   ML 3565. M36 1995

Martirius, Frank A.  “The Great Curassow of the Road to Caribbeaness.” Callaloo 18. 3
        (1995): 690-706.

Poupeye, Veerle.  Caribbean Art.  New York, NY: Thames and Hudson, 1998.   N6591 .P68 1998

Pryce, Everton, ed.  Introduction.  “Ideas and Caribbean Socio-Cultural Reality.”  Caribbean
         Quarterly, 36  (1990): 1-2.

Serbín, Andrés.  Sunset Over the Islands: The Caribbean in an Age of Global and Regional
         Challenges.  London: Macmillan, 1998.   F2183. S48 1998

Serbín, Andrés, and Anthony T. Bryan, eds.  Distant Cousins: The Caribbean-Latin American
        Relationship.  Coral Gables, FL: North-South Center Press, c1996.  F1416. W47 D5 1996

Walcott, Dereck.  The Antilles: Fragments of Epic Memory: The Nobel Lecture.  New York:
        Farrar, Straws & Giroux, 1993.   F1609. 5. W35 1993

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Caribbean Literature

Antoine, Régis, ed.  A History of Literature in the Caribbean: Hispanic and Francophone Regions.
        Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins, 1995.

Balutansky, Kathleen M., and Marie-Agnès Sourieau, eds.  Caribbean Creolization: Reflection
        on the  Cultural Dynamics of Language, Literature, and Identity.  Gainesville, FL: UP of Florida,
        1998.    PM7834. C37 C36 1998

Bernabé, Jean, Patrick Chamoiseau, & Raphaël Confiant.  “In Praise of Creoleness.”  Trans. Mohamed B.
        Taleb Khyar.  Callaloo 19.4 (1990): 886-909.

Bongie, Chris.  Islands and Exiles: The Creole Identities of Post/Colonial Literature.  Stanford:
        Stanford UP, 1998.

Burton, Richard D.E. “The Idea of Difference in Contemporary French West Indian Thought:
        Négritude, Antillanité, Créolité.”  French and West Indian: Martinique, Guadeloupe, and
        French Guiana Today. Eds. Richard D.E Burton and Fred Reno. Charlottesville, VA: UP of
        Virginia, 1995. 146-147.   F2151. F83 1995

Condé, Maryse.  (1993).  “Order, Disorder, Freedom, and the West Indian.”  Yale French Studies
        2. 83 (1993): 121-135.

Dash, Michael J.  “The Word and the World: French Caribbean Writing.”  Callaloo 2. 1 (1988): 112-132.

Gikandi, Simon.  Writing in Limbo: Modernism and Caribbean Literature.  Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP,
        1992.   PR9205. 4. G55 1992

Glissant, Edouard. Caribbean Discourse: Selected Essays. Trans., and Introduction Michael J. Dash.
        Charlotsville: UP of Virginia, 1989.   F2081. G5313 1989

Haigh, Sam, ed.  An Introduction to Caribbean Francophone Writing: Guadeloupe and Martinique.
        New York: Berg, 1999.    PQ3940. I58 1999

Heller, Ben A. “Landscape, Feminity and Caribbean Discourse.” MLN  3.2 (1996): 391-416.

Larrier, Renée B.  “Francophone Caribbean Literature.”  Callaloo 15.1 (1992): 236-262.

Rodriguez-Luis, Julio.  “Literary Production in the Hispanic Caribbean.” Callaloo 34.1 (1988):

Toumson, Roger.  “The Question of Identity in Caribbean Literature.”  Journal of Caribbean Studies
        5.3 (1986): 131-43.

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Caribbean Women Writing

Anim-Addo, Joan, ed.  Framing the Word: Gender and Genre in Caribbean Women Writing.  London:
        Whiting and Birch, 1996.   (On reserve at the JCL)  PN849. C3 F73 1996

Balutansky, Kathleen M.  “Naming Caribbean Women Writers: A Review Essay.”  Callaloo 13.3 (1990):

Boyce Davies, Carole, and Elaine Savory Fido. Out of the Kumbla: Caribbean Women and Literature.
        Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1990.     (On reserve at the JCL)  PN849. C3 O98 1990

Brodber, Erna.  Perceptions of Caribbean Women: Towards a Documentation of Stereotypes.  Barbados:
        University of the West Indies, 1982.    HQ 1501. B76 1982

Collins, Merle.  “Orality and Writing: A Revisitation.”  Winds of Change: The Transforming Voices of
        Caribbean Women Writers and Scholars. Eds. Adele S. Newson and Linda Strong-Leek.  New York:
        Peter Lang, 1998.  37-45.

Cudjoe, Selwyn R., ed.  Caribbean Women Writers: Essays from the First International Conference.
        Wellesley, MA: Calaloux, 1990.  (On reserve at the JCL) PR 9205. A515 C37 1990

Green, Sue N. “Report on the Second International Conference of Caribbean Women Writers.”
        Callaloo 13.3 (1990): 532-538.

---.  “Report on the Third International Women Writers’ Conference.”  Callaloo 16.1 (1993): 65-71.

Larrier, Renée B.  Francophone Women Writers of Africa and the Caribbean.  Gainsville, FL: UP of
        Florida, 2000.    (On reserve at the JCL)   PQ3980. 5. L36 2000

Lima, María Helena. “'Beyond Miranda's Meanings:' Contemporary Critical Perspectives on Caribbean
        Women's Literature.”  Feminist Studies 21.1 (1995): 115-128.

López Springfield, Consuelo, ed. Daughters of Caliban: Caribbean Women in the Twentieth Century.
        Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, 1997.

Malena, Anne.  The Negotiating Self: The Dynamics of Identity in Francophone Caribbean Narrative.
        New York: Peter Lang, 1999.    PQ3944. M35 1999

Momsen, Janet, ed.  Women and Change in the Caribbean: A Pan-Caribbean Perspective.  Bloomington,
        IN: Indiana UP, 1993.  (On reserve at the JCL)  HQ1240. 5. C27 W66 1993

Mudimbe-Boyi, Elizabeth.  “Breaking Silence and Borders: Women Writers from Francophone and
        Anglophone Africa and the Caribbean.”  Callaloo 16.1 (1993): 75-76.

Newson, Adèle, and Linda Strong-Leek, eds.  Winds of Change: The Transforming Voices of Caribbean
        Women Writers and Scholars.  New York: Peter Lang, 1998. (On reserve at the JCL)
        PN849. C3 N49 1998

Paravisini, Lizabeth, and Barbara Webb.  “On the Threshold of Becoming Caribbean Women Writers.”
       Cimarrón 1.3 (1998): 106-131.

Phaf, Ineke.  “Women and Literature in the Caribbean.”  Unheard Words: Women and Literature in
        Africa, the Arab World, Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America .  Ed. Mineke Schipper.  London:
        Allson and Bubsy, 1985.  168-200.

Pyne-Timothy, Helen, ed.  The Woman, the Writer, and Caribbean Society: Critical Analyses of the
     Writings of Caribbean Women: Proceedings of the Second International Conference.  Los
     Angeles, CA: University of California, Center for African American Studies, 1998.
     (On reserve at the JCL) PN849. C3 W66 1998

Shea, Maureen.  “A Growing Awareness of Sexual Opression in the Novels of Contemporary Latin
        American Women Writers.”  Confluencia 4.1 (1988): 53-59.

Shelton, Marie-Denise. “Women of the French Speaking Caribbean.”  Caribbean Women Writers:
        Essays from the First International Conference.  Ed. Selwyn R. Cudjoe.  Wellesley, MA: Callaloux,
        1990. 346-56.    PR9205. A515 C37 1990

Stefanko, Jacqueline. “New Ways of Telling: Latinas' Narratives of Exile and Return.” Frontiers: A
        Journal of Women Studies 17.2 (1996):50-69.

Smyley Wallace, K.  “Women and Identity: A Black Francophone Female Perspective.”  Sage  2.1

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Araujo, Nara.  “Feminism and Feminist Literary Theory in Cuba from Colonial Times to the Revolution.”
      The Woman, the Writer, and Caribbean Society.  Ed. Helen Pyne-Timothy.  Los Angeles, CA:
       University of California, Center for African American Studies, 1998.  22-32.
        PN849. C3 W66 1998

---, and Lucía Suárez.  “Two Coversations with Nancy Morejón.”  Bridges to Cuba/Puentes a Cuba.  Ed.
        Ruth Behar.  Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1995.  129-139.
        PS508. C83 B75 1995

Bengelsdorf, Carollee.  The Problem of Democracy in Cuba: Between Vision and Reality.  New York:
        Oxford UP, 1994.    HX158. 5. B45 1994

Camnitzer, Luis.  New Art of Cuba.  Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1994.  N6603. C26 1994

Davies, Catherine.  A Place in the Sun?: Women Writers in Twentieth Century Cuba.  New York: St.
        Martin’s Press, 1997.   PQ7378. D38 1997

---.  “Women Writers in Twentieth Century Cuba: An Eight-Point Survey.”  Framing the Word: Gender
        and Genre in Caribbean Women’s Writing.  Ed. Joan Anim-Addo.  London: Whiting & Birch LTD,
        1996.  138-158.    PN849. C3 F73 1996

Fusco, Coco.  “El Diario de Miranda / Miranda’s Diary.” Bridges to Cuba/Puentes a Cuba.  Ed. Ruth
        Behar.  Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1995.  198-216.   PS508. C83 B75 1995

Gomez-Vega, Ibis. "The Journey Home: Defining Identity in Cristina Garcia's Dreaming in Cuban."
      Voces: a Journal of Chicana/Latina Studies 1.2 (1997):71-100.

Kapcia, Antoni. Cuba: Islands of Dreams.  NY:  Berg, 2000.     F1760. K365 2000

López, Iraida H.  “An Interview with Cristina García.”  Bridges to Cuba/Puentes a Cuba.  Ed. Ruth
        Behar.  Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1995.  102-114.   PS508. C83 B75 1995

MacGaffey, Wyatt, Clifford R. Barnett, Jean Haiken, and Mildred Vreeland.  Cuba: Its People, its
        Society, its Culture.  New Haven, CT: HRAF Press, 1962.   F1760. M29

Smith, Lois M., and Alfred Padula, eds. Sex and Revolution: Women in Socialist Cuba.  New York:
        Oxford UP, 1996.

Mary S. Vasquez, Mary S.  “Cuba as Text and Context in Cristina García’s Deaming in Cuban.”  Bilingual
        Review  (1996):

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Dominican Republic

Austerlitz, Paul.  Merengue: Dominican Music and Dominican Identity.  Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1997.
       ML3465.  A95 1997

Brown, Isabel Z.  Culture and Customs of the Dominican Republic. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press,
        1999.  F1938. 45. B76 1999

Cambeira, Alan.  Quisqueya la Bella: The Dominican Republic in Historical and Cultural Perspective.
         Armonk, NY: M.E Sharpe, 1997.   F1935. C36 1997

Derby, Lauren. “The Dictator's Seduction: Gender and State Spectacle during the Trujillo
             Regime.”  Callaloo 23.3 (2000): 1112-1146.

González, Carolina.  “A Poet on Her Own: Aida Cartagena Portalatín's Final Interview.” Callaloo 23.3
        (2000): 1080-1085.

Hernández Nuñes, Angeles. Interview.  By Carolina González.  Callaloo 23.3 (2000): 999-1010

Luis, William. “A Search for Identity in Julia Alvarez's How the García Girls Lost their
        Accents.”  Callaloo 23.3 (2000): 839-849.

Moya Pons, Frank.  The Dominican Republic: A National History.  NY: Hispaniola Books, CUNY
        Dominican Studies Institute, 1995.

Paravisini-Gebert, Lizabeth.  “Allotropes: The Short Stories of Ángela Hernández.” Callaloo 23.3
        (2000): 983-986.

Rosario-Sievert, Heather. “Conversation with Julia Alvarez.” Review-Latin American Literature & Arts
        54 (1997): 31-37.

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Adell, Sandra.  "Word/Song and Nommo force in two Black Francophone Plays: Simone
        Schwarz-Bart's Ton Beau Capitaine and Ina Césaire's Mémoires d'Isles. Journal of
        Caribbean Studies 8. 1-2 (1990): 61-69.

Arolowo, B.  “The Black Caribbean Woman’s Search for Identity in Maryse Condé’s Novels.”  Feminism
        and Black Women’s Creative Writing: Theory, Practice, and Criticism.  Ed. Akanmu G. Adebayo.
        Ibadan, Nigeria: AMD, 1996.  220-228.

Burton, Richard D.E., and Fred Reno, eds. French and West Indian: Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French
        Guiana Today.  Charlottesville, VA: UP of Virginia, 1995.  F2151. F83 1995

Case, Frederick I.  The Crisis of Identity: Studies in the Guadeloupean and Martinican Novel.  Quebec:
        Editions Naaman, 1985.

Condé, Maryse. "The Role of the Writer." World Literature Today 67.4 (1993): 697-700.

Dagenais, Huguette.  “Women in Guadeloupe: The Paradoxes of Reality.”  Women and Change in the
        Caribbean: A Pan-Caribbean Perspective. Ed. Janet Monsen.  London: James Currey Ltd., 1993.
        HQ1240. 5. C27 W66 1993

Haigh, Sam.  Mapping a Tradition: Francophone Women's Writing from Guadeloupe.  England: Maney
        Leeds, 2000

Hewitt, Leah D. “Inventing Antillean Narrative: Maryse Condé and Literary Tradition.” STCL 17.1
        (Winter 1993): 79-96.

Larrier, René.  “Poetics of Exile: Simone Schwarz-Bart’s Ton beau capitaine.”  World Literature Today
        64.1 (1990): 57-59.

Lewis, Barbara.  “No Silence: An Interview with Maryse Condé.”  Callaloo 18.3 (1995): 543-550.

Loncke, Joycelyn.  “The Image of the Women in Caribbean Literature: With Special Reference to Pan
        Beat and Hérémakhônon.”  Bulletin of Easter Caribbean Studies 11.1 (1985): 70-79.

Miller, J.G.  "Simone Schwartz-Bart: Refiguring Heroics, Disfiguring Conventions."  Theatre and
        Feminist Aesthetics.  Eds K. Laughlin, and C. Schuler. Teaneck: Farleigh Dickinson UP.  148-169.

Morrison, Anthea.  “Family and Other Trees: The Question of Identity in the Work of Maryse Condé
        and Simone Schwarz-Bart.”  The Women, the Writer, and Caribbean Society.  Ed. Helen
        Pyne-Timothy.  Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Center for African American Studies,
        1998.  80-90.    PN849. C3 W66 1998

Mortimer, Mildred.  “An Interview with Myriam Warner-Vieyra.”  Callaloo 16.1 (1993): 108-115.

O’Callagan, Evelyn.  “The Bottomless Abyss: ‘Mad’ Women in some Caribbean Novels.”  Bulletin of Easter
        Caribbean Studies 11.1 (1985): 45-58. (Article abour Myriam Warner-Vieyra’s As the Sorcerer

Ormerod, Beverly.  “The Boat and the Tree: Simon Schwarz-Bart’s The Bridge and Beyond.”  An
        Introduction to the French Caribbean Novel.  Ed. Beverly Ormerod.  London: Heinemann, 1985.
        108-131.    PQ3944. O76 1985.

Pfaff, Françoise. “Conversations with Myriam Warner-Vieyra.”  CLA Journal 39. 1 (1995): 26-48.

Rea, Annabelle M.  “Review of Pays Mêlé.” French Review 60.6 (1987): 905-906.

Rosser, Miriam.  “Figuring Caribbeanness: Identity, Home, Nation, Woman, 1972-1989.” The Centenial
       Review 42.3 (1998): 475-510.   (article on Maryse Condé’s Crossing the Mangrove & Simone
        Schwartz-Bart’s The Bridge and Beyond.)

Salvodon, Marjorie. “In between Borders: Writing Exile in Ton Beau Capitaine by Simone
        Schwarz-Bart.”  RLA: Romance Languages Annual 8 (1996): 130-33.

Wangariwa, Nyatetu-Wagwa.  “From Liminality to a Home of her Own: The Quest Motif in Maryse
        Condé’s Fiction.”  Callaloo 18.3 (1995): 551-564.

See also Callaloo’s special issue on Maryse Condé.  Callaloo 23.3 (Summer 1995).

World Literature Today (Focus on Maryse Condé) 67.4 (Autumn 1993): 693-768.

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Anglesey, Zoe.  "The Voice of the Storytellers: An Interview with Edwidge Danticat."  Multicultural
        Review 7.3 (1 September 1998): 36-39.

Benson, LeGrace. “ Kiskeya-Lan Guinee-Eden: The Utopian Vision in Haitian Painting.”  Callaloo 15.3
        (Summer, 1992): 726-734.

Casey, Ethan. "Remembering Haiti: Breath, Eyes, Memory." Callaloo 18.2 (1995): 524-526.

Chancy, Myriam J.A. “Introduction: Paról gin pié-zél.”   Framing Silence: Revolutionary Novels by
        Haitian Women. Myriam Chancy, ed.  New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1997.  1-23.
        PQ3944 .C47 1997

---.  "Léspoua fè viv : Female Indentity and the Politics of Textual Sexuality in Nadine Magloire’s Le
        mal de vivre and Edwige Danticat’s Breath, Eyes, Memory . " Framing Silence: Revolutionary
        Novels by Haitian Women.  New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers UP, 1997.  104-133.
        PQ3944. C47 1997

Charles, C.  “Gender and Politics in Contemporary Haiti: The Duvalierist’ State, Transnationalism, and
        the Emergecence of a New Feminism (1980-1990).”  Feminist Studies 21.1 (1995): 135-164.

Coates, Carrol F.  “The Haitian intellectual Scene: Creative Writers, Essayists and Visual Artists.”
       Callaloo 15. 3 (1992): 863-873.

Danticat, Edwidge, ed. The Butterfly's Way: Voices from the Haitian Dyaspora [sic] in the United
        States. New York, N.Y: Soho Press, c2001.   PS598. H33 B88 2001

Dominique, Jan  J.  Interview.  By Mohamed B. Taleb-Khyar.  Callaloo 15.2 (Spring, 1992): 452-454.

Hoffman, Léon-François.  “The Linguistic Situation in Haiti.”  Essays on Haitian Literature.
         Léon-François, ed.  Washington DC: Three Continent Press, 1984.  31-47.
        PQ3948. 5H2 H64 1984

---.   “The Haitian Novel during the Last Ten Years.”  Callaloo 15.3 (1992): 761-766.

Laroche, Maximilien. “Music, Dance, Religion.” Callaloo 15.3 (Summer, 1992): 797-810.

Magloire, Nadine. “Autopsie in Vivo” (Introduction of Le sexe mythique). Trans. Beth Lellis. Callaloo
        15.2 (1992): 481-483.

N'Zengo-Tayo, Marie-José. "Children in Haitian Popular Migration as Seen by Maryse Condé and
        Edwidge Danticat."  Winds of Change: The Transforming Voices of Caribbean Women Writers
        and Scholars. Adele S. Newson and Linda Strong-Leek, eds. New York: Peter Lang, 1998: 93-100.

---.   “Rewriting Folklore: Traditional Beliefs and Popular Culture in Edwidge Danticat's Breath Eyes,
        Memory and Krik? Krak!”  Macomere: Journal of the Association of Caribbean Women Writers
        & Scholars  3 (2000):123-140.

Shelton, Marie-Denise.  “Haitian Women’s Fiction.”  Callaloo 15.3 (1992): 770-810.

Wachtel, Eleanor. “A Conversation with Edwidge Danticat.” Brick 65-66 (2000): 106-19.

Zimra, Clarisse.  “Haitian Literature after Duvalier: An Interview with Yanick Lahens.”  Callaloo 16.1
        (1993): 77-93.

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Adell, Sandra.  "Word/Song and Nommo force in two Black Francophone Plays: Simone
        Schwarz-Bart's Ton Beau Capitaine and Ina Césaire's Mémoires d'Isles. Journal of
        Caribbean Studies 8. 1-2 (1990): 61-69.

Arnold, A. James.  “French National Identity and the Literary Politics of Exclusion: The Jeanne
        Hyvrard Case.”  Australian Journal of French Studies. 33. 2  (1996): 157-65.

Bernabé, Jean, Patrick Chamoiseau and Raphaël Confiant. “In Praise of Creoleness.” (1989).  Trans.
        Mohamed B. Tabb-Khyar.  Callaloo 13.4 (1990): 886-904.

Baudoin, Patricia (tr.). “Jeanne Hyvrard.” 1991 Shifting Scenes: Interviews on Women, Writing, and
        Politics in Post-68 France. Eds. Alice A. Jardine and Anne Menke.  New York: Columbia UP, 1991.

Case, Frederick I.  The Crisis of Identity: Studies in the Guadeloupean and Martinican Novel.  Quebec:
        Editions Naaman, 1985.

Clark Stith, Beatrice. “Who Was Mayotte Capécia?: An update.”  College Language Association Journal
       39.4 (1996): 454-57.

---.“The Works of Mayotte Capécia.”  College Language Association Journal 16 (1973): 415-25.

Condé, Maryse. “Unheard Voice: Suzanne Césaire and the Construct of a Caribbean Identity.” Winds of
        Change: The Transforming Voices of Caribbean Women Writers and Scholars.  Eds. Adèle  S.
        Newson and Linda Strong Leek.  New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1998.  61-66.
        PN849. C3 N49 1998

Crane, Janet, comp.  Martinique.  Santa Barbara, CA: Clio Press, 1995.   F2081.M37 C7 1995

Gordon, Lewis R., Denean Sharpley-Whiting and, Renée T. White, eds. and trans.  Fanon: A Critical
        Reader.  Cambrides, Mass: Blackwell Publishers, 1996. (see chapter: “Identity: Engaging Fanon
        to Reread Capécia.”)     H59. F28 F36 1996

Haigh, Sam, ed.  An introduction to Caribbean Francophone Writing: Guadeloupe and Martinique.  New
        York: Berg, 1999.  PQ3940. I58 1999

Hurley, Anthony E.  “Intersections of Female Identity or Writing the Woman in Two Novels by Mayotte
        Capécia and Marie-Magdeleine Carbet.” French Review: Journal of the American Association of
        Teachers of French 70.4 (1997): 575-586.

Jones, Bridget.  “Two Plays by Ina Césaire: Mémoires d’isle and L’Enfant des passages.” Theatre
        Research International 15.3 (1990): 223-233.

Lionnet, Françoise.  "Inscriptions of Exile: The Body's Knowledge and the Mythe of Authenticity in
        Myriam Warner-Vieyra and Suzanne Dracius-Pinalie." Postcolonial Representations: Women,
        Literature, Identity.  Françoise Lionnet, ed.  Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995: 87-100.

Ormerod, Beverly.  “Discourse and Dispossession: Glissant’s Image of Contemporary Martinique.”
      Caribbean Quarterly 27.4 (1981): 1-12.

---.   The Martinican Concept of "Creoleness:" A Multiracial Redefinition of Culture.

Paravisini-Gebert, Lizabeth.  “Feminism, Race, and Difference in the Works of Mayotte Capécia,
        Michèle Lacrosil, and  Jacqueline Manicom.”  Callaloo 15.1 (1992): 66-74.

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Puerto Rico

Acosta-Belén, Edna, ed.  The Puerto Rican Women: Perspectives on Culture, History and Society.
        New York: Praeger, 1986.    HQ1522. P83 1986

Aparicio, Frances R.  Listening to Salsa: Gender, Latin Popular Music, and Puerto Rican Cultures.
         Hanover and London: Wesleyan UP/New England UP, 1998.    ML3535. 5. A63 1998

Den Tandt, C.  "Tracing Nation and Gender: Ana Lydia Vega."  Revista de Estudios Hispános 3
        (1994): 3-24.

Fernández Olmos, Margarite.  “From a Woman’s Perspective: The Short Stories of Rosario Ferré and
        Ana Lydia Vega.”  Contemporary Women Authors of Latin America: Introductory Essay (vol. 1).
         Doris Meyer and Margarite Fernández Olmos, eds.  Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College Press, 1983.
         78-90.    PQ7081. A1 C66

Fernandez Olmos, Margarite. “Growing Up Puertorriqueña: The Feminist Bildungsroman and the Novels
        of Nicholasa Mohr and Magali García Ramis”  Centro  2.7 (1989-90 Winter): 56-73.

Ferré, Rosario. “From Ire to Irony.”  Trans. Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert.  Callaloo 17.3 (Summer, 1994):

Flores, Juan.  Divided Borders: Essays on Puerto Rican National Identity.  Houston, TX: Arte Público,
        1993.    E184. P85 F57 1993

---.  From Bomba to Hip-Hop: Puerto Rican Culture and Latino Identity.  New York: Columbia University
        Press, 2000.   E184. P85 F58 2000

Guerra, Lillian.  Popular Expression and National Identity in Puerto Rico: The Struggle for Self,
        Community and Nation.  Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1998.    F1960. G84 1998

Hernandez, Carmen Dolores.  "A Sense of Space, a Sense of Speech: A Conversation with Ana
        Lydia Vega." Hopscotch: A Cultural Review 2.2 (2001): 52-59.

Hernandez, Elizabeth, and Consuelo Lopez Springfield.  “Women and Writing in Puerto Rico: An
        Interview with Ana Lydia Vega.”  Callaloo 17.3 (Summer, 1994): 816-825.

Hintz, Suzanne.  Rosario Ferré: The Vanguard of Puerto Rican Feminist Literature.  Revista de Estudios
        Hispánicos 20 (1993): 227-32.

---.   Rosario Ferré: A Search for Identity.  New York: Peter Lang, 1995.  PQ7440. F45 Z66 1995

Ocasio, Rafael.  “The Infinite Variety of the Puerto Rican Reality: An Interview with Judith Ortiz
        Cofer.”  Callaloo 17.9 (1994): 1730-1742.

Rodriguez-Seda de Laguna, Asela, ed. Images and Identities: The Puerto Rican in Two World Contexts.
        New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, Inc., 1987.   PQ7420. 15. I43 1987

Romero-Cesareo, Ivette.  “Art, Self-Portraiture, and the Body: A Case of Contemporary Women's Art in
        Puerto Rico.”  Callaloo 17.3 (Summer, 1994): 910-915.

Roy-Fequiere, Magali.  (1994).  “Contested Territory: Puerto Rican Women, Creole Identity, and
        Intellectual Life in the Early Twentieth Century.”  Callaloo 17. 3 (1994): 916-934.

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