Prepared by Dustin Chu

Permission requested by Nedguide [5]
Table of Contents:


Clematis is member of the Ranunculaceae botanical family. The majority of clematis are climbers and not all of the clematis are vines. There are hundreds of species of clematis located all over the world. Clematis often is referred as the queen of vines due to its variey in its producing flowers. The word clematis is taken from Greek as in "klema", meaning "a vine branch". [5] Most of the Clematis piecies produce single flowers where there are some varieties produce double flowers. Even though it is rare, there are varieties that procude both single and double flowers. [1]
Most double flowering clematis blooms double in the spring seasons, and then blooms single on the next season, usually in the late summer, or the fall the latest. [1] Clematis blooms massive from the late winter to the next year. The ability to choose different kinds of clematis to grow allows gardeners maximize the complimentary areas of the garden and gives the garden the rich look whether it is small or larger size. [4]
The colors of Clematis changes due to several factors such as the levels of the sunlight, also their species as some species never change color whereas some changes color as blooming. [1] Many species of clematis are scented but rarely strong enough to use for perfume making. Although the scents are not as significant, the mass of blooms can definitely fill the air with their scents. Some of the noticable scented pieces are the Armandii, and the Rosamund. [1]

Species And Names

There are hundreds of clematis species, and a varieties of color available. Listed below are some of the common clematis (Botanical names-Common names)


Clematis is agenus of mostly climbing perenial in the ranunculaceae family, and has about 300 species worldwide, mainly in North America, Asia, and Europe. [8] Since clematis comes in a wild range of variety of shapes, forms, and colors, they have a wild range of habitat.They can be found all over the world depends on the species and their preferences of growing. However, they can be divided into three groups based on their habit of blooming: the early-flowering-evergreen species, the early-large-flowered varieties, and the late-flowering cultivars. [1] Clematis do not require high levels to survive and grow, they can grow in a riched-sunlight area as well as semi-shade as they grow in the wild. Although clematis are not very picky about the place to grow, they do take several days, longer than other flowers to grow. In addition, they tend to prefer the warmer temperatures and highter light levels. [1]
the first and second group clematis are the early flowering, and so they are very suitable for warmer climates that lack severe cold. The higher light level the area the plants are growing on, the darker the colors of the clematis get. So the lighter colocered flower clmatis would be found more at the shadier locations. [5]

Effective Agents

There are many active agents are found within the Clematis in different parts of the plant. The one that I am interested in the the ingredients that found in the root od the plant. The two agents are found are the Hederagenin and the Oleanic Acid.
Hederagenin has the formula as C30H48O4. Molecular weight of 472.71 g/mol, the structure is shown below:

Another active agent found in the root of the Clematis is Oleanic Acid which has the formula C30H48O3. Molecular weight of 456.71, and the structure is shown below:

Pharmacological Effects

Even though Clematis often are used as fences or other upright strauctures. Some species do have medical use. [6] Clematis rot have been used in Chinese Medicine to treat pains or stiffness of Rheumatism. Since their significant properties, they are well effective in treatment of arthritic aches, swelling, numbness and lower back spasm conditions. [7] During history, Clematis roots are known to use to treat common sickness as pain reliever like headaches, varicose veins, gout, some bone disorders. [7]
Some of the Clematis adverse reactions include skin irritation, blisering, vomitting of blood, weakness, bloody urine. [7] In addition, there are patrs of the plant in which toxics can be found and can be very poisonous. Some of the poisoning symptons includes dizziness, confion, fainting, and some are seriously dangerous to human. [7]

Isolation and Synthesis

Saponins are tripterpene found in a wide variety of plants and certain marine organisms possessing various biological and pharmacological activities. Oleanolic acid, hederagenin, and 11-alpha-hydroperoxy-hederagenin were isolated and chractereized as the sapogenins present in parts of several medical plants such as Sapindaceae and variety of Clematis pieces, particularly in Chematis Monatana. 11-alpha-hydroperoxy-diacetyl-hederagenin is one of the structure of the novel triterpenoid derivatives and considered as a key biogenetic and chemical intermediate. The synthesis of diacetyl hederagenin, via bromo-lactonization, dehydrobromination, and oxidation with H2O2 confirms that fact.
[12] Many hederagenin containing saponins have been shown to possess haemolytic activity. Alpha and beta hederin are natural triterpenoids widely distributed in higer plants. Their biological activities are very closely related to their chemical structures. Thus, it also predicts their chemical properties such as polarity, hydrophobicity, and acidity.< a href="13">[13] The structures of Hederagenin is drawn below:

Also the 3D structure is draw as show:

Isolation and Synthesis
While the synthesis of streoidal saponins has been widely reported in the literature, triterpenoid saponins has less attention even though they are found in a wide variey of plants, often in clematis piecies. Hederagenin saponins are most popular.Within the saponin structre, both aglycone and the sugar moiety play important roles in the evaluation of biological activity. A large majority of triternoid saponin synthesis involve oleanolic acid as the aglycone, and the use of others remain rare such as hederagenin itself, glycyrrhetic acid, ursolic acid, and medicagenic acid are few of compounds that have not been attracted much attention.[13]
The systhesis of hederagenin saponins derivatives is more popular and also can illustrate the synthesis of the compounds. The synthesis of alpha-hederin and its poitional isomers with respect to the rhamnopyrasyl-l-arabinopyranose disaccharide moiety the synthesis of 2 additional families of hederagenin saponins were undertaken. The strategy is to keep one l-arabinopyranose as the first sugar, one d-xylopyranose and one d-glucopyranose were picked as second one in the disaccharide moiety.[12]
The efficient synthesis of beta-d-xylopyranosyl-alpha-l-arabinopyranose and beta-d-glucopyranose-alpha-l-arabinopyranose disaccharides and ther use in the synthesis of 8 hederagenin saponins and their methyl esters is illustrated below:


Interesting Facts

Clematis from Ancient Greek "Klematis" is considered one of the most vigirous climbing flowers. Since it is found everywhere in different regions of the earth, in both mountains and tropics. [11] It has long history due to its widespread across Asia and most North and Western United States where it grows in streamside thickets, wooded hillsides, and forests. Early travelers and pioneers of the American West once referred clematis as "pepper vines" as they used to use clematis to substitute for pepper to spice up their food. One reason the Clematis was used as spice was that during the time period, which was of the western colonization happening, black pepper was very rare and rather expensive. So it was logical to find a substitute for spices that were available everywhere.Thus, clematis were very suitable for the candidates as they were easy to find. So disregard how many toxic substances clematis might have, and how much poisonous they could be, clematis was once used as one of the spices to enriched the flavor of people diet. [11]


[1] Home of Clematis. An Introduction to gardening. An introduction to Clematis. retrieved February 26th, 2009, from
[2] Species.retrieved February 26th, 2009, from
[3] Russ, Karen.Polomski, Bob. HGIC 1104 Clematis: Extension: Clemson University: South Carolina. Clematis. retrieved February 26th, 2009, from
[4]SouthernStates.Clematis Cultivation. retrieved March 2nd, 2009, from
[5] linggren, dale. Todd, Kim. Wegulo, Stephen. University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension. Clematis. Retrieved March 2nd, 2009, from http;//elkhorn.unl/edu/epublic/live/g1861/build/#target
[6]Ohio States University. Clematis. Clematis-Ranunculeace/Buttercup family. Retrieved March 2nd, 2009, from
[7] Oraganizedwisdom Health. Endocrine System center. Clematis Root. Retrieved March4th, 2009, from
[8] Drug Information Online.Complete Clematis Information from Clematis. Retrieved march 4th, 2009, from
[9] R&D Chemicals.Hederagenin. Retrieved March 4th, 2009, from
[10] ChemLink. Online database of Chemicals. Oleanic Acid, Oleaolic Acid, 3beta-hydrosyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 508-02-1.Retrieved March 4th, 2009, from
[11] Absolute Astronomy.Clematis Facts. Clematis.Retrieved March 4th, 2009, from
[12]Chavez, Maria I. Delgado, Huillermo. Isolation and Relay Synthesis of 11alpha-hydroxylperoxy diacetyl-hederagenin. Retrived on March 22 from
[13] Chwalek, Martin. Lalun, Nathalie. Bobichon, helen, Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence. Structure-Activity Relationships of some hederagenin Diglycosides. Retrieved on March 22 from

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