Montecino's CS 103 Course Page

Lecture 3, Chapter 3,4

Bits and Bytes, Media, Word Processing 

See Review of Bits, Bytes by: Prof Marchant
Web address (URL):

Media/Storage - Files - Utilities 

 Distinctions bet. Data / Information 

 Data   - "raw" material - words, numbers, graphics, pictures  that can be changed, saved, sent, printed, that   describe people, events, things, idea.

 Information -  data used for a specific purpose - initiating an action, decision.  For example, data about your income, investments compiled for submitting your income tax is information. 

The distinction bet. data and information is based on how the material is used.

Storage   of data  and information 
 Computer Files - program instructions or data - can exist on a hard disk, floppy, CDROM, Zip Drive...

Executable files: instructions that tell the computer how to perform a function --- run by user or another program 
 ------ operating system instructions  - run by computer, not individual user
 ------ utilities software (Norton Anti-Virus, McAfee) - individual user can run. 
 ------ application software instructions (Word, Excel, Powerpoint) - individual user can run

Examples of user executable commands

DOS: dir a:*.com

Unix: lynx http://www.

Windows: Start menu  >  Programs  >  Microsoft Word 

Data files:  files that contain words, numbers, graphics, pictures that can be changed, saved, printed, etc., that describe people, events, things.

Source files: ex.: batch files - operating system commands autoexec.bat (programming language). These contain instructions that can be read and changed by users. Computer must translate instructions to machine language before execution.

Approach to Files

Traditional Approach

- Select application, then file 

Document-centric Approach 

   - Select data file, and the computer automatically opens application program (extension specific in some cases) 

Filename/extension conventions:

Review pages 4-6, 4-7, 4-8 for examples

.exe and .com are executable  - user can  run

Ex.: click on a .exe file to load or run a program.

.sys, .dll, .drv are run by other executables 

.doc, .xls, .ppt, etc. indicate files created and opened in specific applications (in this case, Word, Excel, Powerpoint, respectively). 

Whether spaces, characters, lower/uppercase are allowed depends upon operating system.

Wildcards w. filenames 

Find files by using Wildcard character: 

UNIX  - non graphical

ls *.txt 

ls *.* 

Useful in Windows - graphical (icon/graphic based) 
Start  > Run  >  Find  >  Files or Folders.  Use the wildcard * if not sure how file name ends or begins.

Storage - also see lec 1 

CD-ROM -- 680+ million bytes 

CD -ROM -- permanent - software, audio,  encyclopedias, etc. 

Writeable CD-ROM (WORM)- can store documents images, multimedia, etc. can be permanent or non-permanent 

DVD ROM - 4.7 - 17 gigabytes read/write & write only 

Storage Device technologies 

Physical & Logical storage 

FAT -- file allocation table - file maintained by the operating system that tracks the location of files on a disk.

fragmented files - files in noncontiguous (not stored next to each other) clusters.

defrag - with defragmentation utility - in Windows:
Start  >  Programs  >  Accessories  >  System Tools  >  Disk Defragmenter

Scandisk properties/check for errors  - in Windows: 
Start  >  Programs  >  Acsessories  >  System Tools   >  Scandisk

DOS Disk Utility Programs 

In DOS at C: prompt, type scandisk.  The computer automatically runs  Scandisk if the Windows "shut down" routine is interrupted or bypassed.  This interrupttion in the normal procedure can cause fragmentation of files. 

Wordprocessing - Review "Power of Printed Word" 3-12

Frees up creative process - ease of brainstorming  on computer 

Some useful functions --- 
User can:
- choose a Wizard to select templates for different types of documents 
- easily change, manipulate data
- can include not only text, but tables, graphics, pictures
- insert data (spreadsheets, charts, pictures) from other applications
- change type, size, color of font
- create bold, italicized text
- set margins
- create tables
- automate date/time of product
- check grammar, spelling 
- save as html (Web page format)
- create outline
- zoom in and out to enlarge or make document view smaller
- search document for specific words
- create headers/footers
- insert comments
- save different versions of a document
- create macros - a series of Word commands grouped together as a single command to automatically accomplish a task
- select "portrait" or "landscape" printing 
- show print preview before printing 
- save document file on different drives (internal and external)
- access a help menu for "how-to" instructions
- auto insert frequently used words/phrases, like your signature
- auto correct settings for frequent mistakes

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