Lecture 3, Chapter 3,4
Bits and Bytes, Media, Word Processing
of Bits, Bytes by: Prof Marchant
Media/Storage - Files - Utilities
Distinctions bet. Data / Information
Data - "raw" material - words, numbers, graphics, pictures that can be changed, saved, sent, printed, that describe people, events, things, idea.
Information - data used for a specific purpose - initiating an action, decision. For example, data about your income, investments compiled for submitting your income tax is information.
The distinction bet. data and information is based on how the material is used.
Storage of data and information
Executable files: instructions that tell the computer
perform a function --- run by user or another program
Examples of user executable commands
DOS: dir a:*.com
Unix: lynx http://www. gmu.edu)
Windows: Start menu > Programs > Microsoft Word
Data files: files that contain words, numbers, graphics, pictures that can be changed, saved, printed, etc., that describe people, events, things.
Source files: ex.: batch files - operating system commands autoexec.bat (programming language). These contain instructions that can be read and changed by users. Computer must translate instructions to machine language before execution.
Approach to Files
- Select application, then file
- Select data file, and the computer automatically opens application program (extension specific in some cases)
Review pages 4-6, 4-7, 4-8 for examples
.exe and .com are executable - user can run
Ex.: click on a .exe file to load or run a program.
.sys, .dll, .drv are run by other executables
.doc, .xls, .ppt, etc. indicate files created and opened in specific applications (in this case, Word, Excel, Powerpoint, respectively).
Whether spaces, characters, lower/uppercase are allowed depends upon operating system.
Wildcards w. filenames
Find files by using Wildcard character: *
UNIX - non graphical
Useful in Windows - graphical (icon/graphic based)
Storage - also see lec 1
CD-ROM -- 680+ million bytes
CD -ROM -- permanent - software, audio, encyclopedias, etc.
Writeable CD-ROM (WORM)- can store documents images, multimedia, etc. can be permanent or non-permanent
DVD ROM - 4.7 - 17 gigabytes read/write & write only
Storage Device technologies
Physical & Logical storage
FAT -- file allocation table - file maintained by the operating system that tracks the location of files on a disk.
fragmented files - files in noncontiguous (not stored next to each other) clusters.
defrag - with defragmentation utility - in
Scandisk properties/check for errors - in
DOS Disk Utility Programs >
In DOS at C: prompt, type scandisk. The computer
runs Scandisk if the Windows "shut down" routine is interrupted
bypassed. This interrupttion in the normal procedure can cause
Wordprocessing - Review "Power of Printed Word" 3-12
Frees up creative process - ease of brainstorming on computer
Some useful functions ---