Jerome Short, Ph.D.
My recent Research Publications include:
Short, J.L. (2012). Psychological fitness for older adults: A pilot intervention. Seniors Housing & Care Journal, 20(1), 71-84.
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate a brief (3 hours) psychological fitness intervention that taught and encouraged participants in a retirement community (ages 69 to 94) to practice eight daily psychological exercises. The intervention randomly assigned 96 participants to receive a program immediately or to a delayed-treatment control group. At a one-month posttest, the immediate intervention participants reported significant increases in optimism, decreases in anxiety, and marginally significant increases in perceived support compared to the control group. The results suggest the value of a brief intervention to enhance older adults’ mental health with the potential to reduce medical care costs. Download Article.
Landrau, E., & Short, J. (2010). The role of relationship attachment styles in disordered eating behaviors. Colonial Academic Alliance Undergraduate Research Journal, 1(1), Article 11. Available at: http://digitalarchive.gsu.edu/caaurj/vol1/iss1/11
This study examined women’s eating disorder symptoms and the quality of the attachment relationship with their mothers and romantic partners for a sample of 117 participants, ages 18 to 22. Seventeen of the participants were in treatment for an eating disorder and 100 were untreated college students, but engaging in binge eating. There were no significant differences between the groups in dieting, bingeing, and purging. The treated group had higher levels of depression and anxiety, and lower levels of self-esteem than the untreated group. The treated group also had lower levels of secure attachment, attachment affect, and perceived support from their mothers compared to the untreated group. There was a negative relation between esteem enhancement from mothers and dieting and purging behavior. Esteem enhancement from romantic partners had a negative relation with anxiety. An anxious ambivalent attachment style with mothers had a positive relation to depression for both groups. The results suggest the protective quality of mother-daughter relationships for young women with eating disorder symptoms and the value of strengthening this relationship for their mental health.
Han, S.C., & Short, J.L. (2009). Alcohol expectancies as a mediator of the relation between impulsivity and alcohol consumption in Asian Americans. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 8(2), 178-200.
Past research on alcohol consumption in minority groups has focused on examining differences in the level of drinking. However, research has yet to fully examine racial differences in the factors that might mediate alcohol consumption. The present study sought to test whether alcohol expectancies mediate the relation of impulsivity on alcohol consumption for both Asian Americans and Caucasians. Participants included 57 Asian American and 70 Caucasian undergraduate students. Results showed that positive alcohol expectancies fully mediated the pathways between dimensions of impulsivity and alcohol use for Asian Americans. For Caucasian participants, only impulsivity predicted alcohol use. Future research on alcohol use and abuse by Asian Americans should consider the role of alcohol expectancies in different social contexts. Download Article
Short, J. L. (2006). Development and evaluation of a psychological fitness intervention for college students. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Hawaii International Conference on Education, 5463-5473.
(Abstract) This study evaluated a psychological fitness intervention for 94 ethnically diverse college students, ages 17 to 22. Half (n=47) of the students were randomly assigned to an immediate-treatment experimental group and half to a delayed-treatment control group. The experimental group received three hours (one hour per week) of theoretically and empirically-derived cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and interpersonal skills training in small groups that they could practice in the form of daily exercises. The experimental group participants reported significant increases in optimistic thinking, academic competence, positive body image, global self-esteem, and life satisfaction, and significant decreases in anxiety, depression, and anger symptoms compared to the control group. The results suggest the utility of a theoretically integrative set of empirically supported psychological exercises to enhance mental health and reduce psychological distress of college students that could prove useful for other populations. Download Article
Short, J.L., Shogan, C.J., and Owings, N.M. (2005). The influence of first ladies on mental health policy. White House Studies, 5(1), 65-76.
(Abstract) Due to their personal and family experiences with mental illness, religious beliefs, formal education, socialization as caregivers, earlier success in changing state policies, and political ideology, several first ladies have chosen to influence federal mental health policy. The political advocacy of first ladies and their preferred policies reflect presidential preferences, but over time they have become more autonomous and systematic in their work as their accepted political roles multiply. This article traces the development of federal mental health policy and the contribution of six first ladies from Eleanor Roosevelt to Laura Bush. Download Article
Short, J.L., & Shogan, C.J. (2004). Bill, make room for Hillary: A book review of Hillary Clinton's Living History . White House Studies, 4(1), 111-113.
(Abstract) The best-kept secret of Hillary Clinton's new carefully worded autobiography is that the reader can gain more insight from its title than anything else. What becomes evident in the book is that Hillary has learned from her past political mistakes, and has attempted to correct them. The book is long and detailed, and the goal is to include something for everyone in her story. As Bill Clinton designs his Presidential Library for opening in 2004, his presidency may become best known as the apprenticeship for the first female president, his wife Hillary. It might behoove Bill to dedicate some library rooms to Hillary and, if he is lucky, maybe she will do the same for him. Download Article
Shogan, C.J., & Short, J.L. (2004). A book review of Barbara Bush's Reflections: Life After the White House . White House Studies, 4(3), 429-430.
(Abstract) In her latest book Reflections: Life After the White House, Barbara Bush provides the opening Republican salvo in the battle with Democrats to win the 2004 presidential election. Although the book has the appearance of a family holiday letter or a small town newspaper column replete with descriptions of the latest family travels, favorite recipes, book suggestions, and family pictures, there are reminders of her husband's and sons' political accomplishments, praise for past and future campaign donors, and preemptive strikes against Bush family critics. Mrs. Bush's role as wife and mother of a president and the continuous presence of secret service agents creates a world of seeing most people on their best behavior. She comments to her neighbors that "I don't find this or that person difficult." They answer, "Of course--nice to YOU." In the end, the book provides an escape into a world of luxury and blissful family gatherings and replaces the Kennedy family myth of Camelot with the Bush family myth of compassionate conservatism. Download Article
Short, J.L. (2002). The effects of parental divorce during childhood on college students. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 38(1/2), 143-155.
(Abstract) This study compared 87 college students who experienced parental divorce between the ages of 8 and 18 with 67 who experienced parental death at the same ages, and 87 whose parents have been continuously married. All participants were currently ages 18 to 28. Adult offspring of divorced parents reported significantly more current life stress, family conflict, and avoidant coping, and less supportive parenting (before divorce), family cohesion, and friend support than the other two comparison groups. Further, these variables were significantly related to children of divorced parents' greater reports of current antisocial behavior, anxiety, and depression than their peers. The results suggest that these variables are useful targets for preventive interventions for college students. Download Article
Short, J.L. (2002). Teaching community psychology and consultation techniques to doctoral students. The Community Psychologist, 35(4), 28-30.
(Abstract) This article is a summary and description of a variety of techniques to help doctoral students learn about, develop, and implement needs assessments, psycho-educational programs, staff training procedures, and program evaluations. The techniques are organized around themes of support, learning, and action, and the Structured Learning approach. The examples include community projects with ethnically diverse populations across the lifespan. Download Article
Short, J.L. (1998). Evaluation of a substance abuse prevention and mental health promotion program for children of divorce. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 28(3/4), 139-155.
(Abstract) This study evaluated a preventive intervention for 62 children of divorce. The childrcn participated in a 12-session clementary
school program designed to improve thcir coping, self-esteem, and assertiveness which were specified as mediators of the effects of family strcss on children's mental health and substance use. Their adjustment was contrasted at pre- and post-intervention with that of demographically matched controls (n = 62). The intervention participants were less wcll adjusted than their peers before the intervention. They reported significant increases after the intervention compared to their peers on problem-focusd coping and self-esteem, and reductions of substance use, antisocial behavior, and anxiety. 'The results suggest the utility of coping skills and self-esteem enhancement interventions to reduce substance use and psychological symptoms of children of divorce. Download Article
Short, J.L. (1998). Predictors of substance use and mental health of children of divorce: A prospective analysis. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 29(1/2), 147-166.
This short-term 1ongitudinal study examincd psychosocial intlucnces on substance use and mental health among children of divorced parents. The sample consisted of ethnically diverse fifth- and sixth-grade students, and compared children of divorced parents (CODPs; N = 176), who were an average of four years post-divorce, with children of marrried parents (COMPs; N = 213) who had never divorced. CODPs reported more life stress, less problem-focused coping, and more substance using friends and family members than COMPs. Furthcr, these variables were significantly related to CODPs greater reported substance use, aggressive behavior, and depression than COMPs cross-sectionally, and longitudinally, four months later. The results suggest the importance of including both substance use and mental health outcomes in preventive interventions for CODPs. Download Article
Neher, L.S. & Short, J.L. (1998). Risk and protective factors for children's substance use and antisocial behavior following parental divorce. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(1), 154-161.
(Abstract) Social networks and personal resources were examined as risk or protective factors for substance use and antisocial behavior in children five years after parental divorce. Children of divorce reported significantly more substance-using friends and less use of coping and social skills than children whose parents had not divorced. Findings suggest the importance of focusing on substance use as well as mental health outcomes in preventive interventions for children of divorce. Download Article
Short, J.L., Sandler, I.N., & Roosa, M.W. (1996). Adolescents' perceptions of social support: The role of esteem enhancing and esteem threatening relationships. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 15(4), 397-416.
(Abstract) Two studies investigated the relations among self- esteem enhancing and self-esteem threatening relationships, life stress, perceived social support, and psychological symptoms through the use of new measures of esteem enhancing and esteem threatening relationships. The studies included samples of 257 college students and 208 high school students. Participants selected the most helpful family member and friend and rated how their relationships with each of these persons enhanced and/or threatened their self-esteem in the previous four weeks. The esteem enhancement and threat measures were internally consistent and appeared to measure valid constructs that were separate from each other. Esteem threat was associated with psychological symptoms independent of stress, social support, and demographic variables cross-sectionally. Both esteem enhancement and esteem threat made independent contributions to predicting global self-esteem cross-sectionally, and longitudinally after controlling for initial levels of global self-esteem. These findings suggest that esteem enhancement and esteem threat processes may help explain the differential effects of social support on adolescent's psychological adjustment. Download Article
Short, J.L., Roosa, M.W., Sandler, I.N., Ayers, T.S., Gensheimer, L.K., Braver, S.L., & Tein, J. (1995). Evaluation of a preventive intervention for a self-selected subpopulation of children. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23(2), 223-247.
(Abstract) Evaluated an experimental preventive intervention developed for children who perceived their parents as problem drinkers. The 8-session program was designed to improve children's coping, self-esteem, and social competence, and modify alcohol expectancies which were specified as mediators of the effects of parental alcohol abuse on child mental health. Participants were 271 self-selected 4th-, 5th-, and 6th-grade students in 13 schools. The children were randomly assigned to treatment or delayed treatment conditions and the program was given to three successive cohorts of students. A meta-analysis across three different cohorts indicated significant program effects to improve knowledge of the program content and use of support- and emotion-focused coping behaviors for the full sample. A slightly stronger range of effects was found for a high-risk subsample. Download Article