Sample exam questions (molecular evoltution, phylogenetics, species)

1.     T      F      Speciation by polyploidy is more common in plants than in animals.

2.     T      F      All named species are either reproductively isolated or monophyletic groups.

3.     T      F      Sympatric species develop by sympatric speciation and parapatric species develop by parapatric speciation.

4.     T      F      A population that is not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium can have allele frequencies p and q that do not add up to 1.0.

 

5. The term ‘sibling species’ is used for species that are specifically:

a)      Monophyletic

b)      Unrelated

c)      Morphologically indistinguisable

d)      Sister groups

 

6.  Which of the following statements is NOT TRUE about the differences between biological and phylogenetic species:

a)      A phylogenetic species is supposed to be a single monophyletic lineage

b)      A biological species is supposed to be reproductively isolated from others

c)      A phylogenetic species is supposed to be reproductively isolated from others

d)      A biological species is supposed to form a single interbreeding gene pool

 

 

7. A population of size 25 exhibits a reduction in its heterozygote frequency in one generation from 0.50 to 0.48. 

 

a.       Is the population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

 

b.      What is the effective population size of this population?

 

 

8. Each of the following populations has the same allele frequencies, but different genotype frequencies. Answer the questions below and make certain your answers are clearly indicated.

 

 

Genotype frequencies

                                AA          Aa           aa

 


Population 1            .68           .24           .08

 

Population 2            .64           .32           .04

 

Population 3            .60           .40           .00

 

 

a. What are the allele frequencies?

 

b. Which population exhibits H-W frequencies?

 

c. Which nonequilibrium population shows evidence of inbreeding?

 

d. Which nonequilibrium population shows evidence of balancing selection?

 

                                       

9. The following nucleotide sequence information was obtained for four species (3 species and an outgroup species). Which of the phylogenies of Species A,B and C shown below represents the most parsimonious phylogeny, based on a cladistic analysis of the data?

 

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Species A

C

C

T

G

A

T

G

A

G

G

T

Species B

C

T

C

A

A

T

G

A

G

G

T

Species C

C

T

T

G

C

A

A

C

G

G

T

Outgroup

C

T

C

A

A

T

G

A

C

G

A