On the BIOL 471 website, click on the Smithsonian Institution's
human evolution website
. This provides an overview of paleoanthroplogy and discusses a
of topics. Pictures of specimens can be viewed from the
family tree available at the site. There is also a nice review
sheet of known hominid fossils at the Bellarmine University website
maintained by W. J. Tietjen. Review the
Smithsonian material dealing with primate
evolution, hominid evolution and the genetic diversification of H.
sapiens and answer the following questions.
1.(1) How long ago in the past did Ardipithecus ramidus live?
2.(1) How are Paranthropus spp. different from Australopithecus
3.(2) Homo habilis existed in Africa during what period of
time? What is the relationship between H. habilis and H.
rudolfensis, which lived in Africa at about the same time?
4.(2) What is the relationship between H. ergaster, H. erectus, and
5.(2) So-called "archaic" forms of H. sapiens (including the species
now called H. neanderthalensis and H. heidelbergensis) first appear how
long ago in the fossil record? How does the cranial capacity of
these H. sapiens forms compare with that of H. erectus?
6.(2) Discuss how a combined theory of modern human origin links the "out-of-Africa hypothesis" with the "multiregional hypothesis."