MANA Sites


Manassas National Battlefield Park

Permanent Lichen Biomonitoring Sites in MANA

The Manassas National Battledfield Park was established in 1940 to preserve the sites of the First and Second Battles of Manassas. The Park is obviously of historic significance, but also preserved over 5000 acres of meadows, streams and woodlands.

Four permanent lichen biomonitoring sites have been established in the Park and at each location, abundance of tree-inhabiting macrolichens was recorded and a specimen of the common lichen Flavoparmelia caperata was collected for elemental analysis. Floristic data from a 2006 survey are available, as well as elemental measurements from samples collected in 2006 and 2009.

Links are available to each site location, where all available data can be obtained. Summary data can also be obtained for all sites in MANA:

MANA lichens

MANA elements

MANA maps available from NPS

NCR Lichens Home



Links to Sites:

MANA 01 Stone Br
MANA 02 First Manassas
MANA 03 Chinn Ridge
MANA 04 NY Monuments