Kozlowski Law Review Columns 1982-Present
click article title to view pdf file

Articles listed below have appeared in Parks & Recreation magazine,

the official publication of the National Recreation and Park Association. 

https://www.nrpa.org/parks-recreation-magazine/


COPYRIGHT NOTICE

 

2022

 

Youth Soccer Coach Arrest Police Immunity

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, July 2022 Vol. 56, Iss. 7

 

Park District Age Discrimination Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, June 2022 Vol. 56, Iss. 6

 

Forest Preserve Gun Ban Second Amendment Challenge

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, May 2022 Vol. 56, Iss. 5

 

Confederate Flag Removed from City Christmas Parade

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Apr 2022 Vol. 56, Iss. 4

 

Service Dog Beach Ban ADA Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Mar 2022 Vol. 56, Iss. 3

 

Youth Baseball Disability Discrimination Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Feb 2022 Vol. 56, Iss. 2

 

Public Golf Course Volunteers Minimum Wage Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jan 2022 Vol. 56, Iss. 1

 

2021

 

COVID Emergency Order Park Protest Arrests

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Dec 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 12

 

 

Ordinance Prohibits Bare Female Breasts in Public

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Nov 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 11

 

Park Land Sale Contract for Shopping Center

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Oct 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 10

 

Terminated Parks Employee Retaliation Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Sep 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 9

 

Standing to Challenge Obama Center in Chicago Park

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Aug 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 8

 

Park Homeless Encampment Closure During COVID Pandemic

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jul 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 7

 

ADA Challenge to Segregation of Program Participant

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jun 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 6

 

Environmental Review of State Park Highway Widening

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, May 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 5

 

Due Process Notice for COVID Sweeps at Homeless Encampment

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Apr 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 4

 

Day Camp Suspension for Disabled Participant's Threats

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Mar 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 3

 

Homeless Encampment "Sweeps" in Parks During COVID

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Feb 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 2  

 

Covid Emergency Order Regulated Park Protest

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jan 2021 Vol. 55, Iss. 1  

 

2020

 

Premises Liability for Fall on Trump Operated Ice Rink

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Dec 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 12  

 

Citizen Activism Can Preserve LWCF Funded Park Resources

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Nov 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 11 

 

COVID-19 Emergency Orders Restricted "Individual Liberties"

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Oct 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 10  

 

Park Law Enforcement Civil Rights Claims

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Sep 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 9 

 

Informal "Comp Time" Process Prompts Sex Discrimination Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Aug 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 8  

 

NEPA Process for Deer Management at National Seashore

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jul 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 7  

 

First Amendment Challenge to City Festival Ordinances

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jun 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 6 

 

Reconsidering the Spectator Protection "Baseball Rule"

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, May 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 5 

 

Fired Parks Employee Claims Retaliation In Violation of ADA

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Apr 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 4 

 

City Lifeguard Videotaped Women in Staff Changing Room

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Mar 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 3 

 

Employment Due Process Under Zero Tolerance Drug Policy

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Feb 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 2  

 

Policy Immunity Challenged in Hazardous Tree Deaths

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jan 2020 Vol. 54, Iss. 1 

 

2019

 

Gender & Age Discrimination Claim in Park Promotion

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Dec 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 12 

 

 ADA Accommodation Claim by Terminated Recreation Employee

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Nov 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 11 

 

 ADA Claim to Allow Emotional Support Hog in Parks

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Oct 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 10

 

Longstanding Historic Cross Constitutional Challenge

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Sep 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 9

 

Overtime Work Racial Discrimination Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Aug 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 8

 

Camping Ordinance Criminalized Homeless Status

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jul 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 7

 

Gun Show in Park Rental Facility Not "Family Entertainment"

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jun 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 6

 

Certified Playground Safety Inspector Accident Review

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, May 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 5

 

Crude Racist Skit Tests First Amendment

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Apr 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 4

 

Claustrophobic Workplace ADA Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Mar 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 3

 

Shallow Water Diving Injury Contributory Negligence

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Feb 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 2

 

City Restricted Park Food Sharing With Homeless

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jan 2019 Vol. 53, Iss. 1

 

2018

 

Former Parks Director Claims Overtime Pay Under FLSA

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation Dec 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 12

 

""Courtesy Hours" for Off-Leash Dogs in Public Parks

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation Nov 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 11

 

Championship Time Standards Disqualify Disabled Athletes

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation Oct 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 10

 

Recreational Immunity - Contrasting Bicycle Opinions 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation Sep 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 9

 

Common Lake Organism Fatal to Park Visitor

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation Aug 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 8

 

Governmental Immunity for Park Security Policy

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jul 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 7

 

Park Purpose Challenge to Wireless Communications Facility

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jun 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 6

 

Standing to Challenge Removal of Confederate Park Monuments

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, May 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 5

 

City Farmer's Market Vendor Religious Freedom Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Apr 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 4

 

Limited Duty Applicable to Overdose Cardiac Arrest

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Mar 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 3

 

Public Park Dedication Evident in LWCF Grant

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Feb 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 2

 

Rope Swing Landowner Liability and Immunity

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jan 2018 Vol. 52, Iss. 1

 

 

2017

 

Adverse Possession Claims in Park Land

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Dec 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 12

 

Park Permit for Location-Based "Pokmon Go" Games 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Nov 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 11

 

Content-Based Park Permit Decisions Unconstitutional 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Oct 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 10

 

State Playground Program Disqualified Religious Organizations 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Sep 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 9

 

ADA Accessibility Rules for Alterations of Existing Facilities

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Aug 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 8

 

Crash on Challenging Mountain Bike Trail

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jul 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 7

 

Criminal Background Checks for Youth Sport Coaches

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jun 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 6

 

Transportation Planning Must Mitigate Park Impacts

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, May 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 5

 

Park Permit for Commercial Wedding Photos 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Apr 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 4

 

Gun Permitees Challenge Park Firearm Regulations

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Mar 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 3

 

Head Shots Just Part of the Game 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Feb 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 2

 

Inaugural Parade Regulations Constitutional Challenge

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jan 2017 Vol. 51, Iss. 1

 

2016

 

Fateful Dive into "Closed" Park Pond Pool

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Dec 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 12

 

Age Discrimination Claim by Beach Patrol Chief

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Nov 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 11

 

"Hold Harmless" Incentive in Recreational Use Statute

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Oct 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 10

 

Economic Development Ongoing Threat to LWCF Legacy

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Sep 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 9

 

Rectal Syringe Unreasonable ADA Accommodation

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Aug 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 8

 

Recreational Use Statutes in State Supreme Courts

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jul 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 7

 

Legal Relationship Shapes AED Use Requirement

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jun. 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 6

 

Turf Field Cancer Risk Environmental Review

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, May 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 5

 

Governmental Immunity for Deadly Mountain Goat

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Apr. 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 4

 

Gun Rights Tested in Parks and Public Spaces

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Mar. 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 3

 

Physician Nixes Post-Injury Return to Football

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Feb. 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 2

 

Downtown Panhandling Ordinance Unconstitutional

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jan. 2016 Vol. 50, Iss. 1

 

 

2015

 

Park Ban on Unattended Holiday Displays

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Dec. 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 12

 

Transgender Discrimination in Male Locker Room

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Nov. 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 11

 

Women Busted for Bare Breasts in Public, Not Men

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Oct. 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 10

 

Competitive Bidding ҆airnessӠin Concession Contract

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Sep 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 9

 

Natural Condition Immunity for Campsite Tree Injury

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Aug 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 8

 

Troubled Triathlete Expelled from Recreation Program

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jul 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 7

 

Public Trust Challenge to Private Park Museum

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jun 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 6

 

 Lower Liability Standard for Coaches During Competition

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, May 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 5

 

No Liability Precedent in State Park Settlement

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Apr. 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 4

 

 Park Playground Ban on Adults Unaccompanied by Children

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Mar. 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 3

 

 Pretrial Summary Judgment Dismisses Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Feb. 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 2

 

       Residency Policy Racial Discrimination Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jan. 2015 Vol. 49, Iss. 1

 

 

2014

 

      Safety Feature Standard Practice in Sport?

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Dec 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 12

 

      Bible Believers Target Arab Festival 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Nov 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 11

 

 Concussion Training Lacking in Federal Civil Rights Claim

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Oct 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 10

 

Keep Your Eye on the Baseball Rule

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Sep 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 9

 

 Neutral Park Curfew Ordinance Constitutional

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Aug 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 8

  

 Leash Law Violator Tased and Confused

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jul 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 7

 

 Federal Flood Control Immunity Slippery When Wet

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jun 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 6

 

 Fingertips Removed by Playground Chain 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, May 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 5

 

Parks Administration Back Disability ADA Claims 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Apr. 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 4

 

Recreational Immunity for Topsoil Debris Dumped in Park

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Mar. 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 3

 

National Lakeshore Residents Resist Tree Removal

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Feb. 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 2

 

Website Invitation to ҄angerousӠPark

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jan. 2014 Vol. 48, Iss. 1

 

2013

 

No Liability for Independent Contractor Negligence

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Dec. 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 12

 

 Traditional Immunity for Local Parks

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Nov. 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 11

 

No Warning of Nuisance Bear Threat to Campers

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Oct. 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 10

 

Park Hours Prohibited Overnight Occupation

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Sep. 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 9 

 

NEPA Review of Fracking Leases on Public Lands

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Aug. 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 8

 

Administration of Emergency Seizure Medication Discontinued 

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jul. 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 7

 

 Pavilion Restaurant Questionable Ґark PurposeӼ/span>

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jun. 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 6

 

Majority "Baseball Rule" Limits Spectator Liability 

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, May 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 5

 

Blind Paintballers Disability Discrimination Claim 

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Apr. 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 4

 

Park User Challenges Outdoor Public Smoking Ban 

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Mar. 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 3

 

Park Arrest for Flamboyant Ballet Exercise

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Feb. 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 2

 

Assumption of Risk for Observable Ballfield Defects

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jan. 2013 Vol. 48, Iss. 1

 

2012

 

Bible Distribution Regulated at Gay Pride Festival

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Dec. 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 12

 

State Park Mineral Exploration in LWCF Project

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Nov. 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 11

 

Obvious Tree Hazard on Park Sledding Hill 

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Oct. 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 10

 

ADA Claimants Must be Qualified for Swim Programs

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Sept. 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 9

 

Did City Ballfield Permits Favor Religious Schools? 

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Aug 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 8

 

Supervision Faulted in City Camping Trip Fatality

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jul 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 7

 

No Liability for Obvious Playground Fall Danger 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jun 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 6

 

Festival Policy Silences Annoying Preacher  

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, May 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 5

 

Hidden Drowning Danger at Riverside Park Dam 

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Apr. 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 4

 

Cliff Collapse Accidents Test Recreational Use Statutes

 James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Mar. 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 3

 

Park ҏccupationӠProtest Protected Speech or Camping?  

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Feb 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 2

 

Private Property Mineral Rights Under State Parks

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Jan 2012 Vol. 47, Iss. 1

 

 

2011

 

 Job Offer Rescinded for Hearing-Impaired Lifeguard 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Dec. 2011 Vol. 46, Iss. 12

 

  Park Conversion Protection in LWCF Project Map 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Nov. 2011 Vol. 46, Iss. 11

 

NEPA Challenge to Park Sharpshooters for Deer Control

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Oct. 2011 Vol. 46, Iss. 10

 

Swim Event Agreement Indemnifies Cityճ Negligence 

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, Sept. 2011 Vol. 46, Iss. 9

 

Vehicle Fees Impact Recreational Use Immunity

James C. Kozlowski, Parks & Recreation, August 2011 Vol. 46, Iss. 8

 

  Golf Lease Consistent with Public Purpose Gift?
James C. Kozlowski. Parks & Recreation. July 2011 Vol. 46, Isss. 7


  Liability for Open S-Hook on Playground Swing 
James C. Kozlowski. Parks & Recreation. June 2011 Vol. 46, Iss. 6

 

Flood Control Immunity in Recreation Evaporating 
James C. Kozlowski. 
Parks & Recreation. May 2011 Vol. 46, Iss. 5


Right to Bear Arms Limited in "Sensitive" Public  Facilities 
James C. Kozlowski. 
Parks & Recreation. Apr. 2011 Vol. 46, Iss. 4


Camp "Cleanup" Makes Homeless Status Criminal 
James C. Kozlowski. 
Parks & Recreation. Mar. 2011 Vol. 46, Iss. 3