Bloodtaking and Peacemaking: Feud, Law, and Society in Saga Iceland, by William I. Miller (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990). This is a fascinating study of how a fully private system of concurrent jurisdictions, based on restitution rather than retribution, functioned to protect public order and individual rights.
Medieval Iceland, by Jesse Byock (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988). This book, in addition to being a fascinating study of a rich culture, shows how the Icelandic "Things" were neither kin-based nor geographical monopolies, but voluntary associations to provide protection of rights and order.
The Law Merchant: The Evolution of Commercial Law, by Leon E. Trakman (Littleton, Colo.: Fred B. Rothman & Co., 1983). See the discussion in the section on Law and the Free Society above.
Without the Law: Administrative Justice and Legal Pluralism in Nineteenth- Century England, by H.W. Arthur (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985). This book looks at the growth of private arbitration services in Victorian England and the revival of old jurisdictions as ways of circumventing the state.
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